RICKETTS               .                                  I613                                                           RIEL

siedel in northern Bavaria, and, after attending school in Hof for a number of years, was sent to Leipsic to study theology. But Rousseau, Voltaire and other authors had much greater attractions than did theology, and he, too, resolved to write books. His first literary efforts were satires, but he could get no publisher, and for years he carried on a desperate struggle against poverty, continuing to read and study with actual hunger as his daily companion. In 1785 he left Leipsic to avoid imprisonment for debt, and took refuge with his widowed mother at Hof. Here his circumstances were made a little easier, and he spent a number of years as private tutor in wealthy families. For a long time Richter seemed destined to failure as a writer, but in 1793 there was a turning point in his fortune, The Invisible Lodge proving unexpectedly successful. It was followed by other works which brought him a liberal pecuniary reward and gave him high rank among the literary men of his age. In 1801 Richter married and settled at Bai-reuth, where he spent the remainder of his days. The principal works written during his married life were Tiian and Wild Oats, the former accounted by himself and most German critics his masterpiece. Jean Paul perhaps is the most unique character in German literature, the chief of humorists and, in the language of Carlyle, " a colossal spirit, a lofty and original thinker, a genuine poet [in prose], a high-minded, true and most amiable man." He died at Baireuth, Nov. 14, 1825. See Life ofJean Paul F'. Richter by De Quincey.

Rick'etts, James B., an American general, was born at New York in 1816, and graduated at West Point in 1839 He served in various kinds of frontier duty and in the Mexican War until the Civil War broke out, in 1861, when he was made brigadier-general of volunteers, and continued in active service with the army of the Potomac until the close of the struggle. Among the battles in which he participated were Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam, the Wilderness and the siege of Petersburg. He retired with the rank of major-general, Jan. 3, 1867, and died at Washington, D. C , Sept. 22, 1887.

Rid'dles may be defined as questions or propositions containing a more or less hidden meaning, which is to be discovered by guessing. At the present day propounding and solving riddles are a mere pastime, but in ancient times they were put to more important purposes, being used to some extent for practical instruction and intellectual discipline. Every reader of the Old Testament is familiar with the riddles which Samson proposed to the Philistines. They first came into use in Greece about the time of the Seven Wise Men, one of whom was celebrated for the composition of metrical riddles. The riddle was much cultivated in Europe during the middle ages, although it

was an amusement rather than an intellectual exercise. Abbé Cotin published a collection of his own riddles and those of his contemporaries, in which he styled himself Le Père de l' Enigme (the father of the riddle), but his claim has not been recognized.

Rid'ley College is an Anglican church-school for boys near St. Catherines, Ontario. It was founded in 1889 by men, under the presidency of the late Thomas R. Merritt, who wished to have a place where their boys might be educated on the lines of the famous, English public schools. There are two schools, the upper one for grown boys and the lower one for children. Each has an independent headmaster and independent staff. The buildings accommodate 140 boys; and the school is so popular that applications for entrance have to be made some time in advance. Principal J. O. Miller, D. D., has been in charge since inception. Ridley was the first large residential school to establish entirely separate buildings, grounds and staff for junior boys.

Ridley, Nicholas, Protestant martyr, was born at Wilmontswick, Northumberland, about 1500, and, after graduating át Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, in 1522, was ordained priest in 1524. He next went to Paris and to Louvain, and, having met some of the most active reformers while abroad, after a three" years' absence he returned to England an ardent believer in the doctrines of the Reformation, quickly making himself one of the foremost leaders of the church. In 1547 he was made bishop of Rochester, and, when Bonner was deposed from his position as bishop of London, Ridley was appointed his successor. He assisted Cranmer in the preparation of the 41 articles, afterward reduced to 39. After the death of Edward VI Ridley espoused the cause of Lady Jane Grey, even going so far as to preach a sermon in which he declared both Mary and Elizabeth illegitimate. For this offense he was stripped of his office and dignities and committed to the Tower. In March. 1554, he was taken to Oxford to be tried by a commission, named by Cardinal Pole, for heresy, and, after being kept in prison for 18 months and resisting all influences to make him recant his views, he was burned at the stake in front of Balliol College on Oct. 16, 1555. See Life by Dr. Gloucester Ridley.

Riel, Louis, was the leading figure of the Red River Rebellion (o. v.). His father was white, his mother a half-breed. He had been educated for the priesthood in Montreal. Eloquent, magnetic, vain, he resisted the rule of the Dominion. Archbishop Taché was in Rome at the time. Riel seized Fort Garry and set up a provisional government. This caused the expedition under Sir Garnet Wolseley. As the expedition approached, Riel fled and found a refuge in the United States. Subsequently he was tried for treason, convicted, and executed in 1885.