RIPLEY

1617

RIVES

miles. It is over a mile broad when its clean, inky-black stream enters the yellow, muddy Amazon.

Rip'ley, George, was born at Greenfield, Mass., Oct. 3, 1802. After graduating at Harvard College in 1823, he studied theology there and was ordained to the pastorate of a Unitarian church at Boston. This he held until 1841. In the meantime he had become one of the leading spirits in the Transcendental movement, the first meeting of the club being held at his house in 1836; and on leaving the pulpit he started the Brook Farm experiment. This ended in 1847, when Ripley removed to New York City and engaged in literary and journalistic work. He died on July 4, 1880. See Life by O. B. Frothingham in the American Men of Letters Series.

Rip Van Win'kle, the hero of Washington Irving's delightful sketch, first published in 1820, is an idle, good-natured, henpecked scapegrace, who, with his gun and dog, seeks a refuge from the scolding' of his sorely tried and ill-tempered wife in the forests of the Catskill Mountains There he falls in with Hendrik Hudson and his crew of The Half-Moon, who are playing at ninepins in a secluded hollow, the balls sounding like peals of thunder along the sides of the mountain. Rip is directed to wait on them, and while in this service drinks of their liquor until his senses forsake him and he falls asleep. He wakens on a bright summer morning 20 years afterward, to find his dog gone and a rusty firelock by his side. When he returns to his native village, he sees new buildings and new faces on the street. His own house has fallen into decay; his wife is dead; and he who went away a subject of George III has returned to find himself a citizen of the United States. This story has been dramatized, but no version has held the stage except the one with which the name of Joseph Jefferson has been identified.

Ristori (res-to're), Adelaide, an Italian tragedian, was born on Jan. 29, 1821, at Cividale in Friuli. Her parents were strolling players, so that she may almost be said to have begun life in the theater. At 14 she took a part in Francesca da Rimini, and in a few years became the leading actress of Italy. After acting in her own country for years, she presented herself before a French audience in 1855 and won a complete triumph, and thereafter gained additional laurels in nearly every country in Europe, as also in the United States and South America. The rôles in which she especially shone were Mary Stuart, Media, Marie Antoinette and Lady Macbeth. She retired in 1885, and died on Oct. 9, 1906.

RitschI, Albrecht, a German Protestant theologian, was born at Berlin, March 25, 1822, and died at Göttingen, March 20, 1889. Studying at Bonn and Halle, he

became professor of theology at the former, but subsequently accepted the same chair at Göttingen, where he became a well-known exegete and the head of a school of theology bearing his name. Though he held that Christianity is a divine revelation, he held free views regarding inspiration, and was no believer in the supernatural. He rejected the doctrines of the trinity, incarnation, original sin and other orthodox religious beliefs, holding that the religious sense is the essential and ultimate fact in religion. Only a few of his published works are translated from the German. Of his works the chief are The Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation, Theology and Metaphysics, History of Pietism, Instruction in Christian Religion and Origin of the Ancient Catholic Church.

Rit'ter, Karl, an illustrious geographer, was born at Quedlinburg in Prussia, Aug. 7, 1779. After studying at Halle, he was nominated professor of geography at Berlin in 1820, and afterwards became member of the academy and director of studies of the military school. With Ritter as the founder of comparative geography began a new epoch in the history of geographical science. His chief work, Geography in Its Relation to Nature and the History of Men, was divided into (1) Central Asia, Siberia, China and India; (2) Western Asia; (3) Arabia; and (4) Sinai, Palestine and Syria. His lectures were published in History of Geography; General Geography; and Europe. He died at Berlin, Sept. 28, 1859, and his name is perpetuated in two geographical institutions at Berlin and Leipsic.

Riv'erside, Cal. city and county-seat of Riverside County, about 60 miles east of Los Angeles. The climate makes it especially attractive as a health-resort. The mission-style of architecture is used extensively in the public buildings. Noteworthy buildings in this style are the high school, Carnegie Library and Glenwood Hotel. The irrigation-system is one of the most extensive in southern California, and the yearly crop of citrus-fruit grown in the county fills more than 8,000 cars. There are nearly 40 packing-houses employing over 1,500 persons. Riverside is the seat of Sherman Institute, a United States Indian school, which has 600 pupils. Population 15,212.

Rives irevz), Amelia (known also as Mrs. J. Armstrong Chanler and as Princess Amélie Troubetzkoy), American novelist, was born at Richmond, Va., Aug. 23, 1863. Her earliest production was a series of stories entitled A Brother to Dragons, which showed imagination and a certain strength. This was followed by a sensational and passionate work called The Quick and the Dead, which met however, with considerable popularity. Her later work embraces Virginia of Virginia,