his father's bank in London at 17, and in 1793 became head of the firm. In 1792 appeared the poem on which his fame is chiefly based, The Pleasures of Memory, which in 1816 had reached a nineteenth edition. Then followed An Epistle io a Friend, Voyage of Columbus, Jacqueline and Italy. Rogers was rich; but his poetry, whatever its merits, is wholly a thing of the past. It is now but little read or quoted. He died at London, Dec. 18, 1855.

Rojestven'ski, Sinovi Petrovich (1848-). See Russo-Japanes/ War.

Ro'land, the hero of one of the most popular epic poems of Frankish literature, was, according to tradition, the nephew and favorite captain of Emperor Charlemagne. Through the middle ages the Song~t/j_Röland was the most popular of the many poems current; and William T>i Normandyfwheii on his way to conquer England, hadMt sung at the head of his troops to encourage them on their march. Even now the memory of Roland is still held in honor by the hardy mountaineers of the Pyrenees, among whose defiles the scene of his exploits is laid.

Roland {ro'lan'), Marie (or Manon) Jeanne Phlipon, was born at Paris, March 18, 1754. From a child she was a great reader, devouring all that came in her way, and the reading of Plutarch made her a republican. In February, 1780, she married Roland, who afterwards became the leader of the Girondists. In 1791, in Paris, Madame Roland, with her masculine intellect and woman's heart, became the queen of a coterie of young and eloquent enthusiasts that included all the famous and ill-fated leaders of the Gironde, Brissot, Buzot, Petion and at first even Robespierre and Danton. Roland made himself hateful to the Jacobins by his protests against the September massacres, and took his

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part in the last ineffectual struggle of the Girondists to form a moderate party. On May 31 the sound of the tocsin announced the proscription of the 22. Roland had been arrested, and while his wife went to protest against his imprisonment, he escaped and fled to Rouen. She was arrested and spent months in prison before death closed her tragedy of life. During this time she wrote her unfinished Mémoires. Her character, made perfect through suffering,

took on a new refinement; she carried some of the sanctity of the martyr with her to death, and still, in Carlyle's phrase, like a white Grecian statue, serenely complete, she shines in that black wreck of things. On Nov. 8 (1793) she was carried to the guillotine with a trembling printer, whom she asked the executioner to take first, to save the printer the horror of seeing her head fall. As she looked up at the statue of liberty, she exclaimed: "O Liberty, what crimes are committed in thy name!" A week later her husband died by his own hand near Rouen, unwilling to live longer in a world of crime. See Sainte-Beuve's Portraits of Women.

Roller-Skate. See Skating. Rol'lin, Charles, a French historian, was born in Paris in iđói He studied in the College du Plessis, m which ne became assistant-professor of rhetoric m 1683. In 1688 he was made professor of eloquence in the College de France and was chosen rector of the University of Paris in 1694, a position which he held for two years only In this short time, however, he was able to distinguish himself by many important reforms. In 1696 he was appointed coadjutor to the principal of the College de Beauvais, from which, being an ardent Jansenist. he was removed through the influence of opponents in 1712. The remainder of his life was devoted to study and to writing. He published an edition of Quintuian m 17T5 and Traite des Etudes in 1726. His Histoire Ancienne has been frequently reprinted and re-edited in French and in English He began _' a Histoire Romaine, but never completed it. These works once were popular, but now are of little historical value. He died at Paris in September of 1741.

Roll'ing-Mills are machines rotated by steam-power and used for manufacturing

rods, bars, plates, beams etc. of metal. The rolls usually are of cast-iron, and are made in various forms according to the shape of the product. The cut shows rolls used for making square bars and round rods. Those used for making plates and sheets of metal are perfectly smooth, and are gradually brought together, as the metal is passed through, by means of the screws at the top. The picture* shows a train of two rolls where the piece has to be brought back to the