ROMAGNA                                     .           1626                                        ROMAN EMPIRE

same side for each passage through the rolls, unless the machinery is reversed in direction each time. Trains of three rolls are frequently employed, so that the rolling takes place back and forth, first between the lower two rolls, then between the upper two. Steel, wrought iron, copper and brass as well as other metals and alloys are frequently rolled. Usually the metal is rolled while hot, but certain products are finished by cold rolling in order that they may be harder and stiffer. All the steel and iron rails used for steam and electric roads, as well as the beams and bars used for buildings and bridges, are produced by rolling.

Puddling. Pig-iron, the crude form of iron which is produced from iron-ore by smelting (see Blast-Furnace), is changed to wrought-iron, a metal that can be hammered, rolled and welded by puddling. This is an operation by which the carbon, silicon, sulphur and other impurities are removed from the iron. The puddling-furnace in which the process is conducted is shown in the figure, where / is the fireplace, br the bridge, b the bed, fl the flue and p p p p the iron pillars supporting the furnace. When the fire is burning, the flame goes over the bridge, strikes the arched roof and reverberates down upon the iron, which is placed in the bed. When the roof, walls and bed of the furnace are moderately heated, the pud-dler "fettles" his furnace by plastering the bed and sides with a fettling composition, which consists of ground oxide of iron made into a paste with water. The crude iron is now thrown in, the fire made and the charge heated. During the melting the puddlers stir the mass with a long iron rod. Presently the heated mass thickens, and solid granules are formed amid the liquid. These solid granules are squeezed together into a spongy mass or ball and rapidly carried to the hammer, where it is struck lightly at first

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PUDDLING-FURNACE

and compressed into shape. During this beating or "shingling" liquid cinders are squeezed from the mass like water from a sponge. The puddled iron is then passed through rollers by which further impurities are squeezed out, and the iron is formed into bars, plates or thin sheets, as is desired for different purposes of manufacture. The puddling and rolling of iron was_ first practically introduced by Henry Cort in England in 1784, and since then many improvements

have been introduced. Puddling has lost much of its importance since the introduction of mild steel, made by the Bessemer and open-hearth processes, which has largely taken the place of wrought iron.

Romagna (r-mān'y), formerly the name of a region of Italy, forming the northern portion of the states of the church and comprising the delegations of Bologna, Ravenna, Ferrara and Forli. In 1861 these delegations became provinces of the kingdom of Italy. Population 1,359,167.

Ro'man Empire. To give an adequate history of this mighty nation from the alleged founding of Rome by Romulus in 753 B. C. to the taking of Constantinople in 1453 A. . would require many volumes. Concerning the eart settlement of Italy it is impossible to formldefmite conclusions; . but we seem at least warranted in affirming that at a very remote period a race emigrated from the east, embracing the ancestors both of Greeks and Italians; and Mommsen the historian's statement that "the Italians, like the Indians, entered their peninsula from the north " may be regarded as certain. But in addition to the so-called Italian races, there settled in Italy in prehistoric times the Iapygians, the Etruscans, the Greeks and the Gauls, and, from the mingling of all these came the people of Rome. Recent investigations have shown the story of Romulus and Remus to be a mere myth; but it is probable the city was founded before the time when it is alleged that they were suckled by a she-wolf- Perhaps the most rational view of the city's origin is that suggested by a consideration of its site. It probably was first built as a defense against the Etruscans and as an emporium for river-traffic; but whether it was founded by the Latin confederacy or by the enterprise of an individual chief is beyond even conjecture. The motives which led to the founding of Rome also caused its rapid development, so that the beginnings of Roman history — if the ancient legend may be called history — mainly are records of the city's expansion and growth. An accurate history of the early Roman state is out of the question, as the traditions concerning the first four kings are too mythical to form the basis of sober narrative; but with the fifth king. Tarquin-ius Priscus, a marked change takes place, and we can at least feel that we are beginning to leave the field of tradition and approach that of history. The expulsion of the younger Tarquin about 509 B. C. in revenge for the outrage on Lucretia marks the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the so-called republic which continued nearly 500 years.

The history of Rome from the establishment of the republic to the abolition of the decemvirate, 449 B.C., was chiefly military, as the Romans were engaged in constant wars with their neighbors, especially the