ST. GERMAIN-EN-LAYE

1657

ST. JAMES' PALACE

at Rome, where he produced Hiawatha, his first sculptured figure. Returning to New York, he opened a studio and produced a number of busts, statues and emblematic subjects. The more prominent of these are his statues of Abraham Lincoln, Admiral Farra-gut, William M. Evarts, Gen. W. T. Sherman, John A. Logan, Peter Cooper, Robert R. Randall, Theodore D. Woolsey, and other memorial sculptures, portrait-busts, bas-reliefs, tablets etc. Notable, also, are his figure pieces — The Puritan, Diana (on the tower of Madison Square Garden in New York City) and the fine bas-relief in St.ThomasChurch, New York City, entitled A duration of the Cross by A ngels, unhappily destroyed by fire in 1905. Effective also is his Shaw Memorial tablet in Boston Common. He was the recipient of many medals and honors; while France made him an officer of the Legion of Honor and corresponding member of the Institute of France. He died at Cornish, N. H., Aug. 3, 1907.

St. Qermain- (zhr'man') =en-Laye, a famous French city on the Seine, 13 miles east of Paris. A fine terrace, built in 1672, runs along the river in front, and behind the city is a royal forest of 10,000 acres. The royal castle was the favorite residence of the kings of France until Louis XIV moved the court to Versailles. Population 17,297.

St. Gotthard (snf gŏth'rd), a mountain in the Alps, 9,850 feet high. Here are the sources of the Rhine, Rhne, Ticino and Reuss, whereby St. Gotthard sends its melted snows to the German Ocean, the Mediterranean and the Adriatic. Across its shoulder runs one of the famous passes from Switzerland to Italy, 6,936 feet high. Near the top stand two hotels and a hospice for the 12,000 travelers who use the pass every year. Now most of the traffic goes through the tunnel, finished in 1880, which is 9J miles long and cost $11,350,000, while the whole cost of the St. Gotthard railroad was $45,400,000.

St. Helena (hĕ-lē'nă), a lonely island in the Atlantic, 1,200 miles from the western coast of Africa, covering 47 square miles. It is a part of an old volcano; and High Hill is 2,823 feet above the sea. Its shores are cliffs from 600 to 2,000 feet high, cut by deep, narrow valleys. The people, who number only 3,512, raise potatoes, and fish for whales. Jamestown is the sole town. The Suez Canal destroyed a large trade with vessels which stopped on the way to and from India by the Cape of Good Hope. The chief trade now is the export of the produce of the whale-fisheries to the United States. There are cable-communications with Cape Town and with Sāo Vicente in the Cape Verd Islands. The island is a British coaling-station, and the naval squadron of the Cape and West Africa rendezvous there frequently. St. Helena was discovered by the Portuguese in 1502, and taken possession of by the British East In-

dia company in 1651. The island is chiefly noted as the place of Napoleon's imprisonment from 1815 to his death in 1821. His hoirie was the farmhouse of Longwood, three miles inland from Jamestown. Many Boer prisoners were sent here during the war in South Africa. See Melliss' St. Helena.

St. Hen'ri, Can., suburb of Montreal and also in Hochelaga County, has 21,192 inhabitants. It is two miles from the metropolis, Ste. Cungonde lying between.        ,

Saint-Hilaire (sant'lr'), Geoffroy Etienne, a French naturalist, noted for his work in comparative anatomy and for his connection with tiie theory of evolution. He was born at Etampes, April 15, 1772, and died at Paris in 1844. He became attached to the Museum of Natural History at tlie Jardin des Plantes. Here he was associated with Cuvier and Lamarck. He became professor of zoology, and devoted himself mainly to the study of vertebrates. He published works on the structure of animals and on the philosophy of anatomy. In 1803 he was given the badge of the Legion of Honor, and in 1807 was elected to the Institute. He reached the conclusion that there is a unity of plan in the construction of all animals, and he accounted for the origin of different animals through the changes produced in them by the surrounding conditions. As an evolutionist he sided with Lamarck against Cuvier, who believed in the fixity of species. (See Evolution.) He, however, was more nearly a follower of Buffon than of Lamarck. In 1830, just after the death of Lamarck, he engaged in a controversy with Cuvier before the Institute on the unity of type and the evolution of animal life. This debate was so famous that it stirred all intellectual Europe Cuvier won by his great authority and the more skillful management of his side of the case. He was partly right, but as regards the evolution of animal life later evidence is against him.

St. Hyacinthe {hi' sĭnth), Can., county-seat of the county of that name, lies on the west bank of Yamaska River, 35J miles from Montreal on the Grand Trunk Railway. It has 9,210 inhabitants, and is the seat of a Roman Catholic cathedral and a large Dominican college. Much manufacturing is done, chiefly shoes, woolen-goods and milling-machinery.

St. James' Palace, a large brick building, fronting toward Pall Mall, London. At first a hospital, it was made a royal manor by Henry VIII. Here Queen Mary died, and Charles I slept here the night before his execution. When Whitehall was burned in 1697, St. James became the regular London palace of the English sovereigns and so continued until Queen Victoria removed the royal household to Buckingham Palace in 1837. The Court of St. James is a name often given to the British court.