ST. JOHN, CITY OF                                 1658                                               SAINT-JUST

St. John, City of, Can., is the great seaport of New Brunswick. Its harbor is open all year and with Halifax disputes the position of the first winter-port of Canada. This excellent harbor has large wharves and an elevator. It is the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway (a. v.), and is < apped by a branch of the Inter-colonial. A branch of the Grand Trunk Pacific (q. v.) will reach it. Ocean-liners run to this port particularly in winter, and it has constant steamship-connection with the New England cities and Nova Scotia. One of its attractions is the natural wonder of the reversible falls in St. John River. When the tide is out, the falls flow towards the sea, but, as the tide rises, it gradually obliterates the cataract until there is still water over its side through which vessels may pass, and then it rises until the falls are flowing inward up the river. Population 42,000.

St. John Lake, Can., known to all travelers which measures 26 miles in length by 24 in breadth, and drains an immense valley that bears its name. It also receives several large rivers which drain lands of great fertility. The chief rivers to the south are the Metabethchouan and the Ouiatchouan; to the east, La Belle Riviere; to the west, the Ashuapmouchouan ; to the northwest the Ticouapee and Mis-tassini; to the north and northeast, the Great and Little Perihonka The depth of water generally is three feet a mile from the shore, from 12 to 54 feet a couple of miles further out, and about 60 to 80 feet at the center. It is in this fine lake and its numerous tributaries that sportsmen enjoy magnificent fishing for the ouananiche or freshwater salmon. Several steamboats navigate the lake, all starting from Roberval.

St. John of Jerus'alem, Knights of, a celebrated military and religious order of the middle ages, was founded about 1048 in a hospital built by merchants of Amaifi at Jerusalem for the care of pilgrims to the Holy Sepulchre. After the conquest of Jerusalem by the crusaders in 1099, the hospital servants were joined by many from the Christian army, who resolved to devote themselves to the service of poor and sick pilgrims. They soon became an order, which was military as well as religious, and the members of the order became known as Hospitallers. Saladin forced them in 1191 to retire to Acre, the last Christian stronghold in Palestine, which they held with great bravery for a century, but then after a terrible siege weie compelled to sail to Cyprus. In 1310 the knights captured Rhodes and seven neighboring islands from the Greek and Moslem pirates, and for over 200 years waged successful war against the Turks. In 1523 Sultan Solyman captured Rhodes, and after a short stay at Crete Charles V gave

Malta, with Tripoli and Gozo, to the Hospitallers. In 1565 Dragut, the corsair, after capturing Tripoli, laid siege to Malta, and at the end of four months was beaten off with a loss of 25,000 men. By 1798 the order was of little importance, and Malta was surrendered to the French. Certain branches are still kept up in Europe.

St. John, a river rising in Maine and, after a course of 450 miles, falling into the Bay of Fundy by an inlet five miles wide. It is navigable for small craft for 155 miles to Woodstock. Through most of its upper course it forms the boundary line between Maine and Canada.

St. John's, capital of Newfoundland, is on the eastern coast, 1,076 miles northeast of Montreal, and is the nearest port in America to Europe, being only 1,730 miles from Cork. It has a good harbor, two railroads and a number of manufactures, which from fisheries-products have extended to iron-foundries, machine-shops, breweries, tanneries and factories for making shoes, furniture and soap. Population 29,594.

St. Jo'seph, Mo., a city on the Missouri, in the northwest of the state, 70 miles from the northern boundary. Eight railroads, six of which are trunk-lines, enter here. One hundred and thirty-six passenger trains arrive and depart daily. The river is crossed by a steel railroad-bridge which has five spans, one a draw-span of 365 feet. Here are the State Hospital for the Insane and the Ensworth Medical College. There are two public libraries and 37 public schools with 300 teachers. There are 75 jobbing-houses with a yearly trade of $150,000,000, and extensive manufactures of hardware, men's working-clothes, boots, shoes, saddiery, office-fixtures, carriages, brick, confectionery, medicines and druggists' supplies. The stockyards cover 440 acres. Livestock received in 190Ŏ amounted to 3,370,808 head, valued at $60,000,000. Natural gas for manufacturing purposes is supplied at eight to ten cents per thousand cubic feet. Joseph Robidoux, a French-Indian trader, laid out the town in 1843. It soon became famous as a starting-point for the long journeys in wagons across the plains, and was the eastern terminus of the famous Pony-Express. Its area is seven square miles. Population 77,403.

Saint=Just (s&n'zhusf), Louis Antoine de, French revolutionist, was born at Décide, Aug. 25, 1767. While studying law at Rheims he was captivated by Rousseau's writings, and, to become a writer, set off to Paris at 19, taking some of his mother's plate, and was at her request imprisoned for six months. His essay on The Spirit of the Revolution gained him some standing, and as a member of the convention he attracted notice by his fierce tirades against the king and by making the opening speech on the verdict at