ST. LAWRENCE, GULF OF

1659

SAINT LOUIS

his trial. As a follower of Robespierre fie began the attacks on Hébert, which sent him to his doom, quickly followed by the fall of Danton. Saint-Just fell with Robespierre, but unlike him, carried his head high on the tumbrel, and died without a word, July 28, 1794.

St. Law'rence, Gulf of, washes Newfoundland, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. It is joined to the Atlantic by the Strait of Belle Isle between Newfoundland and Labrador; by the Gulf of Canso between Cape Breton and Nova Scotia; and by a wider passage than either between Cape Breton and Newfoundland. The main islands are Anticosti; St. Paul's and Prince Edward. The gulf is noted for its fisheries.

St. Lawrence River, The, 750 miles long, is one of the most picturesque and interesting rivers in the world. It flows from Lake Ontario into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The waters of the great inland lakes find in it their outlet. Shortly after leaving Lake Ontario, it expands into the Lake of The Thousand Islands, world-famed for their beauty. Leaving the islands and reaching nearly to Montreal are a series of rapids, the Galops the Long Sault, the Coteau, the Cedars, the Cascades and Lachine. To eastbound passengers they are exciting and interesting. The return trip is made by means of canals built at great cost by the Canadian government. The islands contain numerous summer-resorts which are extensively patronized. The river, with the system of canals established on its course above Montreal and with Lakes Ontario, Erie, St. Clair, Huron and Superior and connecting canals, affords water-communication from the Straits of Belle Isle to Port Arthur, at the head of Lake Superior, a distance of 2,200 miles. The distance to Duluth is 2,343 miles and to Chicago 2,272 miles. From the Straits of Belle Isle at the mouth of the St. Lawrence to Montreal the distance is 986 miles; from Quebec to Montreal 160 miles. Owing to the shallowness of the waters on a portion of the river between those two places, particularly through Lake St. Peter, vessels drawing more than 10 or 12 feet were formerly barred from passage for the greater part of the season of navigation. In 1826 the question of deepening the channel was mooted, but it was not until 1844 that dredging operations were begun. In that year the deepening of a new and straight channel was commenced; but the scheme was abandoned in 1847. In 1857 the deepening of the present channel was begun. At that time the depth of the channel at low water was ten and a half feet. By 1869 this depth had been increased to 20 feet; by 1882 to 25 feet; and by the close of 1888 the depth of 27J feet at low water was obtained for 108 miles from

Montreal to a point within tidal influence. This work is now continued by the government of Canada. The channel, which is lighted and buoyed, has a minimum width of 300 feet, extending to 550 feet at points of curvature. Navigation, closed during the winter months, is opened about the end of April. This work places Montreal at the head of ocean navigation, and here the canal-systems of the River St. Lawrence begin. The difference in level between the point on the St. Lawrence near Three Rivers where tidal influence ceases and Lake Superior is about 600 feet.

Saint Louis (sănt loo'ïs), Mo., the chief city on the Mississippi and the fourth of the United States, is on the west bank of the Mississippi, 21 miles south of the mouth of the Missouri. It stands on a gradual slope which has the average elevation of 100 feet above the river. The city has a river frontage of 19 miles and covers 62 £ square miles. The geographical position of St. Louis and its-river and railroad facilities have combined to make it a city of great and growing importance. It is the chief receiving and distributing point for a vast and rich territory to the west and southwest.

Transportation. The Mississippi River, which has ample depth in front of the'city, was formerly the great highway of traffic to New Orleans and the gulf. It still carries a large volume of trade, although the traffic is now for the most part by rail. There are 27 lines of railroads entering the Union Depot. The Eads bridge over the ^Mississippi was opened in 1874 and is 1,524 feet long. It leads into a railroad-tunnel which extends 4,000 feet under the business portion of the city. The Merchants' steel-bridge, opened in 1890, is 2,450 feet long, including approaches. It is three miles north of the Eads bridge and a number of railways enter the city over it. A unique feature is Cupples Station, where nearly all of the freight brought into the city is handled. This establishment occupies almost four acres in the railroad-yards, on both sides of the main tracks as they leave the tunnel. Twenty buildings are near these tracks, which are occupied by representatives of some of the largest concerns of the city, The platforms for handling goods cover 50,000 square feet, and arrangements for handling the business are so perfectly systematized that a great saving of time in the loading and unloading of cars is secured, and the hauling of freight through the streets for transshipment is avoided. Union Station is one of the largest and finest structures of its kind in the world, the train-shed providing accommodations for no less than 32 trains of 11 passenger-coaches each at one time.

Industries. The manufactures of the city rank fourth in the United States, the capital invested in 1905 being $265,936,570 and the