SARGASSUM

l68l

SASKATCHEWAN

Sargas'sum, a genus of brown seaweeds whose species are often observed floating in great masses in the large eddies formed by oceanic currents. These regions of comparatively stagnant water covered by sea-weeds are known as Sargasso Seas, the prevailing type being a species of Sargassum. See Phśophyceś.

Sar'gent, John Singer, an American painter, was born of American parents in Florence, Italy, in 1856. Hewas educated in Italy, France and Germany. His early art-training was under Carolus Duran by whom he was chosen to assist in the execution of important government commissions wherein he mastered the secrets of French technique. His chief works are in portrait and genre; among the former Carolus Duran, Joseph Jefferson, William M. Chase, Homer St. Gaudens, President Roosevelt; among the latter, Fishing for Oysters at Cancale and Neapolitan Children Bathing. His most ambitious and original works are the decorations in the Boston Library which include the famous Frieze of the Prophets. His portraits reflect clearly even the subtilest traits of individuality. His manner is French, and his treatment superior. His Dogma of the Redemption, a portion of the wall-painting in the Boston Library, is deeply devotional and one of the finest Christian paintings of the period. It is divided into an upper and lower panel, which seem to represent Heaven and Earth ; in the upper are the three persons of the Trinity enthroned, redeeming the world; in the lower are angels bearing the reeds, nails, the spear and crown of thorns.

Sar'gon. See Assyria.

Sarma'tians, a race who spoke the same language as the Scythians. They were nomads, wild and savage in looks, good horsemen and bowmen, and dressed in leather armor. Their young women went into battle on horseback, a custom which may have caused the Greek stories about the Amazons. They were made of several tribes that roamed the wide plains from the Vistula and the Danube to the Volga and the Caucasus. In the second half of the 4th century B. C they conquered the Scythians (q. v.). Their empire lasted till the 4th century A. D., when it was overthrown by the Goths.

Sar'nia, Can., stands where St. Clair River issues from Lake Huron. The submarine tunnel connecting the railway systems of Ontario with those of Michigan is here. Steamers leave Sarnia twice a week for Duluth. There is ferry-communication with Port Huron (Michigan). The oil-refineries, saltworks and lumber are extensive industries.

Sar' saparil' la is the dried root of the smilax, a native plant of Central America. It is a twining shrub, which grows only where water is plenty. The brownish root is many feet long and about as thick as a goose-quill. A liquid extract is used as a flavoring and a medicine.

Sar'to, Andrea del, a painter of Florence, where he was born in 1487 or i486. His family name was Vannucchi, but he was nicknamed Del Sarto — the tailor's son — from his father's business. He painted two series of frescos in Florence, the best of the first series being Nativity of the Virgin and Journey of the Three Kings. He spent a year in Paris at the invitation of Francis I, and was very popular among the French. The most celebrated of his single pictures are the Last Supper, the Madonna with the Harpies and Fathers of the Church Disputing. Del Sarto was a rapid worker, and excelled in accurate drawing. Michael Angelo rated him highly. He died'at Florence in 1531. See Crowe and Cavalcaselle's Painting in Italy. Saskatche'wan, a province of the Dominion of Canada lying west of Manitoba and having Alberta on the west, Mackenzie on the north and the United States on the south. It has an area of 251,000 square miles. The province is a vast plain, containing 159,038,720 acres, and the greater portion of its southern two thirds is situated in the great wheat-growing belt. The portion adjoining or lying near to Manitoba possesses much of the characteristics of that province as to soil, topography, climate, rainfall and, consequently, productive adaptabilities. The soil is a friable loam, easily worked and producing excellent crops of wheat, coarse grains and vegetables. The winter climate answers all requirements, both as to degree of cold and as to sufficiency of snowfall, for the production of the No. 1, hard wheat for which Western Canada is now noted. The valleys along Saskatchewan, Qu'Appelle. Assiniboine and Souris Rivers, Pipestoue, Long and other creeks, are specially adapted for mixed farming, and the open prairie beyond affords large areas for grazing or grain-growing The region is well-served by the Canadian Pacific Railway. Southwestern Saskatchewan is entered at McLean station, and its first considerable town is Regina, the capital of the province. The land here is a rich, fertile loam, as well to the south as to the north. Several new and important towns have sprung into existence along the "Soo" line, as Halbrite, Weyburn, Yellow Grass, Estevan, Milestone and Rouleau. The cultivation of flax is carried on to a considerable extent. Wheat-raismg, however, is the important industry of this district, and the yields are highly satisfactory to the producer. Between Regina and Moose Jaw there is splendid land, and mostly occupied by prosperous farmers. The central portion of the province is almost centrally divided by the main Saskatchewan River, which is altogether within the district, and by its principal branch, the North Saskatchewan —■ most of the navigable length of which lies within its boundaries. It includes, in the south, a