SASKATCHEWAN                                     1682                                                    ■ SATURN

small proportion of the great plains, and in its general superficial features may be described as a mixed prairie and wooded region, abounding in water and natural hay and well-suited by climate and soil for the raising of wheat, cattle and sheep. As a general thing, the surface is gently undulating prairie. Northern Saskatchewan consists of the eastern half of the late Territory of Athabasca and embraces an area of about 70,000,000 acres, enough for a fine-sized province in itself. As yet it is not opened for settlement because of its inaccessibility and distance from railway systems, the nearest railway station being Prince Albert. The province had a yield of wheat of 30,000,000 bushels in 1906 and of oats 23,000,000 bushels. The mean summer temperature at Regina is 62.70 and in winter 6.90. The population is 250,000. Its capital city, Regina, has a population of 7,000, Moose Jaw has 6,500 and Prmce Albert 4,000.

Saskatchewan (ss-kch'-won), a large river of Canada, draws its waters from the Rocky Mountains, and is formed by two head-waters called the south and the north branch. The northern branch rises among the glaciers near Mt. Hooker, the southern branch from a group of springs near the same locality but a short distance to the south. The former has a course of 770, the latter of 810, miles before they meet. The river then flows east 282 miles to Lake Winnipeg, from which its waters are carried to Hudson Bay by Nelson River. Including the Nelson, its whole length is 1,514 miles. Steamers run from Lake Winnipeg to Edmonton (700 miles) ; the Nelson is spoiled for navigation by rapids.

Sas'safras, the popular and the technical name of a genus which contains but a single species, native to eastern North America. The trees usually are small, but occasionally become 125 feet in height. The root is largely used for the aromatic oil.

Satellite (să'ěl-lī), a small planet or moon. The term is generally employed in astronomy to denote one planet revolving about another; and hence satellites are sometimes called secondary planets, to distinguish them from the primary or larger planets. One of the chief points of interest in connection with satellites is that a satellite enables one to determine the mass of the primary as soon as the radius of its orbit, r, and its period, T, are known. For then, if we denote the mass of the primary by M and the mass of the secondary by m, we have

M+m=(-«rJ r

and, since m is practically always negligible in comparison with M, we have


For a list of the known satellites see Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, article Solar System. On the evolution of satellites see Time and Tide by Sir Robert Ball in the Romance of Science Series.

Sat'inwood, the wood of Chloroxylon Swietenia from India. The wood is deep yellow and remarkably close-grained, heavy and durable.

Satolli {s-tōVlē), Cardinal Francesco, a Roman Catholic prelate and diplomat of the papal see, was born at Perugia, Italy, July 21, 1831. In 1888 he was created archbishop of Lepanto, and in the following year represented the pope at Baltimore, Md., on the centenary of the Roman Catholic hierarchy and on the inauguration of the Roman Catholic univeisity at Washington, D. C. In 1893 he came again to America as apostolic delegate with plenary powers, and in 1896 received the cardinal's hat. Cardinal Satolli is the author of a Course of Philosophy on the Summa of St. Thomas and of essays on various philosophical themes. In 1892 his action in regard to church controversies aroused opposition, but was sustained.

Sat'suma Ware, named from the province of Satsuma in Kiushu, is a fine pottery, almost like porcelain, which in its older examples is much sought. The ware has a yellowish glaze, and is ornamented in red, gold, green and silver. The Japanese excel in this hard pottery, although the Chinese are their superiors in the manufacture of porcelain proper. The Japanese employ glazing alloys of a kind unfamiliar in Europe, based generally on copper.

Sat'urn, an early Italian god who presided over farming, his name coming from the word meaning to sow. He most resembles Demeter of the Greek deities, but was later identified or confounded with the Greek Kronos. According to the Greek myth, Kronos the son of Uranos (heaven) and Ga (earth) is the youngest of the Titans. He married Rhea, by whom he had several children, all of whom he devoured at their birth except the last, Zeus (Jupiter), whom his mother saved by a stratagem. The motive of Kronos was his hope of bringing to naught a prophecy which declared that his children would one day deprive him of his sovereignty, as he himself had done in the case of his father Uranos; but fate is stronger even than the gods, and when Zeus had grown up he began a ten years' war against Kronos and the Titans, ending in their being hurled down to Tartarus and there imprisoned. Other myths added that after his banishment from heaven Kronos went to Italy, where Janus gave him a share in his sovereignty. In this way Zeus' conquest of Kronos, a Greek myth, became the Roman myth of Jupiter's conquest of Saturn. Saturn thus became a divine king, who with fatherly mildness ruled the Italian natives and taught agriculture. Hence the whole