SCARLET TANAGER                               1688                                                  SCHILLER

emblems of power and resurrection. They are found sculptured on monuments and tombs. Gems were also cut in the form of the scarab and worn in rings and amulets. The Greeks and Etruscans borrowed this custom of engraving the scarabæus on gems. Scar'let Tan'ager. See Tanager. Scheffer (shëffĕr), Ary, a painter, was born at Dordrecht, Holland, Feb. 12, 1795, and studied in Paris. His first pictures were insphed by Goethe's, Byron's and Dante's poems, and included Margaret at the Well, Faust in His Study, Suliote Women and the well-known Dante and Beatrice in Heaven. After 1835 he turned to religious subjects, painting Christus Consolator (Christ the Consoler), Temptation of Christ, St. Augustine and Monica and others His pictures are chiefly remarkable for depth of feeling and refinement of expression. Collectors prize them so highly that in 1870 even a small replica sold for $9,607. Some of his best portraits are those of Lafayette, Madame Guizot, Talleyrand, Liszt and Lamartine. He died at Argenteuil, near Paris, June 5, 1858. See Memoir by Mrs. Grote.

Scheldt (skĕlt), a river of Europe, rising in France, flowing north through Belgium past Ghent and Antwerp, enters the North Sea at Flushing by two arms, going north and south of two small islands. It is 267 miles long and navigable for 211 miles. The Dutch claimed the navigation of the lower Scheldt in the 17th and 18th centuries and demanded toll of all foreign vessels sailing on it. In 1831 the rights passed to Belgium when it separated from Holland. In 1863 Belgium gave up the claim for $3,750,000 paid by foreign nations.

Schelling (shel'ïng), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph, a German philosopher, was born at Württemberg, Jan 27,1775. He studied theology and philosophy at Tubingen and science and mathematics at Leipsic. He succeeded Fitchte as teacher of philosophy in the University of Jena in 1798. From 1803 to 1808 he was professor at Wurzburg; until 1820 secretary of the Royal Academy of Arts at Munich; professor at Erlangen until 1827, when he returned to Munich to a position in the new university there: and finally was called to Berlin by King William IV in 1841. He died in Switzerland in 1854. He began as a follower in philosophy of Fitchte and Hegel, with whom he ranks among German philosophers, but later was influenced by Spinoza and Boehme. His many philosophical works include the Inquiry into the Nature of Human Freedom, The Possibility of Any Form of Philosophy, Philosophy of Nature and jfhe World-Soul. See Morell's History of Philosophy.

Schenck (skĕnk), Robert dimming, American soldier and diplomat, was born at Franklin, O., Oct. 4, 1809, and died at Washington, D. C, March 23, 1890. He served eight years in Congress (1843-51),

when he was appointed minister to Brazil. He was afterwards sent on diplomatic missions to Buenos Aires, Montevideo and Paraguay. In the Civil War he was appointed (May, 1861) brigadier-general of volunteers and took part in the two battles of Bull Run as well as in that at Cross Keys. In September, 1862, he was promoted major-general and given command at Baltimore, which he protected during Lee's invasion of Maryland. From 1863 to 1871 he represented Ohio in Congress on the Republican side, and from 1871 to 1876 was minister to Great Britain. He rendered distinguished service in bringing about Anglo-American arbitration of the Alabama claims He subsequently practiced law at Washington, D C.

Schenectady {ske něk'tå-dï) N. Y., a city, county-seat of Schenectady County, 17 miles northwest of Albany. It is on Mohawk River and Erie Canal and is a manufacturing city. It has the works of the General Electric Company, which employs 15,000 people, and the Westinghouse electric works; besides knitting-mills stove-foundries, locomotive-works and pump, steel springs, wire-railings, wheelbarrow and broom factories. The principal public buildings are the post-office, cotnty court-house, municipal buildings, Van Curler opera-house, state armory, Home of the Friendless, Children's Home, Ellis Hospital and Y. M. C. A. building. It is the seat of. Union College, founded in 1795, and with the law and medical schools and Dudley observatory at Albany and the academic, and engineering departments in Schenectady, forming Union University Schenectady has 22 churches and excellent parochial and public schools, the public high school being known as Union Classical Institute. This school owns its library and the city has a beautiful, free, public library. Schenectady was settled by the Dutch in 1601 in 1690 it was burned and the citizens massacred by the French and Indians. Population 72,826.

Schiller (shĭflSr), Johann Christoph Friedrich, a German poet, was born at Mar-bach, in Württemberg, Njv 10, 1759. He studied law and then medicine in the school at Ludwigsburg, established by Duke Carl Eugen of Württemberg, where he received three medals, though he had spent more time in reading and writing poetry than in studying medicine. His first play, The Robbers, in 1782, was produced at Mannheim. The people were so eager for it that they filled the theater at noon, five hours before the play began, and it made a tremendous sensation, being full of the revolutionary spirit that preceded the French Revolution. Because Schiller had twice left Stuttgart without the permission of the duke, he was arrested and forbidden to write plays or to leave Württemberg, which led to his flight to Mannheim under