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tween nine Protestant princes and eleven imperial cities. Other princes and cities afterward joined the league, until it included nearly all the Protestant states from Denmark to Switzerland. The object of the league was the protection of the Protestants against Charles V and the Roman states. The Articles of Smalkald, adopted by the league, were drawn up by Luther at Wittenberg. At the battle of Mühlberg, April 24, 1547, the Protestants, weakened by the withdrawal of Duke Maurice of Saxony were defeated and the league was broken up. Schnitz'er, Eduard. See Emin Pasha. Scho'field, John McAllister, an American general, was born in New York state in 1831. A graduate of West Point, he was made a professor there in 1855. When the Civil War broke out, he entered the army as major of the 1st Missouri volunteers, and was on General Lyon's staff when the latter was killed at the battle of Wilson's Creek. He was in command in Missouri until February, 1864, and then of the army, of the Ohio. He shared Sherman's southern campaign, and was in most of the battles which ended with the taking of Atlanta, when he returned to Tennessee, defeating Hood at Franklin, and was with General Thomas at the battle of Nashville. Entering North Carolina, he took Wilmington and again joined Sherman, for whom he drew up the supplementary articles of surrender of Johnston's army, which were afterwards approved by the government. In 1868 he became secretary of war and major-general in the regular army. Upon the death of General Sheridan in 1888, he succeeded to the command of the United States army. Previous to his retirement he was, by act of Congress, made lieutenant-general, Feb. 7, 1895. He wrote Forty-six Years in the Army. He died on March 4, 1906.

School'craft, Henry Rowe, an American writer, was born in the state of New York, March 28, 1793. After studying at Union College, he visited the mining-region west of the Mississippi and also acted as geologist in an exploring expedition to Lake Superior and the Upper Mississippi under General Cass. In 1822 he was Indian agent for the tribes about the lakes, and in 1823 married the granddaughter of an O jib way chief who had been educated in Europe. While Indian agent he made treaties that gave the United States 16,000,000 acres. As a member of the legislature of Michigan Territory, 1828-32, he founded its,historical society. An expe-

dition which he commanded in 1832 discovered the sources of the Mississippi. After collecting the statistics of the Six Nations, he was employed by Congress in 1847 to gather all the information possible about the Indian tribes, the result being published in five volumes, costing the government $30,000 a volume. He added a sixth volume to the collection in 1857. His works include narratives of his journeys, namely, Notes on the Iroquois; The Red Race 0} America; Thirty Years with Indian Tribes and The Indian in His Wigwam, He died at Washington, D. C, on Dec. 10, 1864.

SchooUQarden, The. Among progressive school-people there is a growing interest in the school-garden. In cities, in normal schools and even in the country, the schoolchildren are set to work cultivating flower and vegetable gardens. The school-garden is an outgrowth of regular school-work; it is one striking phase of the effort to get out of doors, away from books and into contact with the real world. It is a healthy realism putting more vigor and intensity into school-work.

The school-garden has an important relation to several school-studies. First of these is nature-study. There is no better way of bringing children into contact with plant-life than by raising flowers and vegetables in the garden. The boys and girls get out of doors, prepare the soil, plant the seed, watch with great interest the growth of plants, cultivate them through the season, and finally observe the growth and ripening of the fruit. This whole cycle of growth and change is the most fundamental thing in plant-study, and nothing can be more interesting to children than this process when they themselves are concerned in the products of the garden. In the second place the garden has a very important place in the study of geography. In the home-geography in the early grades classes of children are required to visit the gardens and study the processes of cultivation and marketing the products. These are fundamental lessons in geography. In this way gardening leads on to agriculture, scientific farming, fruit-raising and the improvement of country life generally.

There is a strong tendency in all parts of the country to turn the attention of children strongly toward these outdoor studies. The garden naturally suggests farming, the raising of corn and other grains, the feeding of cattle, dairying and butter-making, fruit-culture, as of berries, stone-fruits, apples and pears. Scientific agriculture and fruit-raising arc based on principles of careful selection of seed and of wise cultivation, of fertilizing and preserving soils, of grafting, pruning and caring for fruit-trees and of spraying against insect-pests. All these things are vitally interesting to children, and put new meaning into country life.