4. Signal Bombs For Aeroplanes (Model Poma)

(A) Red Cloud

Description and method of employment. - These flares are dropped from aeroplanes and serve to indicate the enemy target for the artillery. They are composed of a pasteboard outer tube, which contains a number of paper cartridges that explode and produce a varicolored cloud. The red-cloud flare contains three capsules, which are attached together. After the explosion of the inner tube the first cartridge lights immediately and the other two light at intervals of 3 seconds. The method of firing is by means of a cannon match lighted by friction. These explode 20 seconds after release.

Composition of mixture. - Mercuric sulphide (cinnibar).

(B) Blub Cloud

Description and method of employment. - Same as for 4 (a).

Composition of mixture. - Ultramarine blue.

(C) Yellow Smoke

Description and method of employment. - This flare contains two cartridges which produce a yellow cloud. They are attached to a wire at a distance from each other of 10 meters. The wire is attached to a parachute. Duration of action 20 seconds.

Composition of mixture. - Same as 2 (b).

(D) Black Smoke

Description and method of employment. - General description same as 4 (c).

Composition of mixture. - Same as 2 (a).

(E) Silver Sprat

Description and method of employment. - This flare is composed of a pasteboard outer tube having an inner tube which contains 12 capsules filled with an aluminum mixture. These light upon the explosion of the inner tube and drop rapidly, giving the appearance of a silver spray. Duration of action 12 seconds.

Composition of mixture. - Same as for No. 1.

5. Illuminating Flare For Detecting Aeroplanes (Model Poma)

Description and method of employment. - This flare is composed of a large pasteboard tube containing an illuminating mixture similar to No. 1. Its purpose is for illuminating enemy aeroplanes during a night attack. It is lighted by means of a cannon match, which is ignited by means of another special match containing a very large head of phosphorus in order to prevent the blowing out of the match by strong winds. Duration of action five minutes. Flare is burned on ground. This is also made in two other sizes with duration of action of two minutes and one minute, respectively.

6. Manifestos (Model Poma)

Description and method of employment. - This rocket is composed of a pasteboard tube containing an inner tube similar to those above mentioned except that in this tube are placed the messages which it it desired to distribute to enemy trenches to serve as propaganda among enemy troops. The method of firing is by lighting a cannon match as described in No. 5. Range, 300 meters.

7. Messages (Model Poma)

Description and method of employment. - General description is the same as for No. 6. The message is in a tube on the rear end of the rocket stick. When the rocket containing the message strikes the ground a smoke bomb is lighted which produces a yellow smoke. This serves to aid in locating the messages. The purpose is to convey messages from the front line to commanders in the rear when other means of communication are severed. There is considerable recoil to both No. 6 and No. 7 and they must be held firmly against an improvised brace or propped so as to be able to regulate the inclination of fire, as the range depends on the inclination. The maximum range is 800 meters.

8. Hissing Flares (Model Poma)

Description and method of employment. - This flare is composed of a pasteboard outer tube containing a long, narrow sheet-iron inner tube. This sheet-iron tube contains another pasteboard tube filled with potassium picrate and potassium nitrate. The sheet-iron tube is projected by a charge of black powder and at the top of the trajectory explodes, liberating the inner pasteboard tube which remains attached to the parachute. The mixture of potassium picrate and nitrate takes fire and the reaction produces a hissing sound which is heard for a distance of 3,000 meters. This signal is used for a gas alarm. The method of firing is by means of pulling a wire which is attached to the lower portion of the flare, the friction thus produced igniting a phosphorus exploder on the inside of the tube. Duration of action, 15 seconds. This is also made to use on the ground instead of as a rocket. In the latter type, ignition is by means of a match composition.

Smoke Bombs

Description and method of employment. - These smoke bombs are composed of a heavy pasteboard outer tube filled with a smoke-producing mixture and covered at each end by two wooden caps with a hole in the center through which the smoke issues. The lighting system is the same as described in No. 8 - that is, by quickly pulling out a wire attached to the lower part of the tube. The purpose of these smoke bombs is to conceal movements of troops. Composition of mixture. - Wet wood sawdust, heavy oil, sodium nitrate.