For war rockets, the cases were made of sheet iron, lined with paper or wood veneer. The head was cast iron, either a solid shot or a shell with a fuse communicating with the rocket composition. The case was usually charged solidly by means of a ram or press, and the core was then bored out. These rockets were of two kinds:

1. The Congreve, which had a directing stick attached to the tailpiece.

2. Hale's rocket, which required no stick, its direction being maintained by a peculiar arrangement of holes in the tailpiece through which the flame issued. War rockets were usually fired from tubes mounted on portable stands or light carriages. The Hale rocket was made in two sizes, one having an outside diameter of 2 1/4 inches, and the other an outside diameter of 3 1/4 inches. The maximum range of the 2 1/4-inch rocket was seventeen hundred and sixty yards.

Firestone

The composition of firestone was:

Parts.

Rosin.......................

3

Sulphur............................

4

Niter...........................

10

Regulus of antimony..........................

1

These materials were mixed together and then later were added one part of mutton tallow and one part of turpentine. This composition was then cast into cakes, and was fired from mortars to set fire to enemy property.

Valenciennes Composition

This was composed of:

Parts.

Niter.......................

60

Sulphur............................

28

Antimony ..........................

13

Rosin .........................................

6

The composition was mixed and then cast in cylindrical molds 6 inches long, of a diameter to suit the shell in which it was to be loaded. It was used as an incendiary composition in charging shells, and was inserted along with the bursting charge in pieces as large as the shell would admit without interfering with the fuse.

Fireballs

. Fireballs were projectiles of an oval shape, formed of sacks of canvas filled with a combustible composition, which consisted of:

Rosin.

Pitch.

Tallow.

Spirits of turpentine.

Linseed oil.

Gunpowder.

Dry composition (beeswax, niter, flowers of sulphur, sawdust, regulus of antimony, gunpowder).

Chopped tow. These fireballs were shot from mortars, and were used in setting fire to enemy property.

Light Balls

Light balls were made in the same manner as fire balls, except that there was no shell in them, and they were used for lighting up our own works.

Plate XI.

Light Balls 10013

Tarred Links

These were made by dipping coils of soft rope which had been immersed for 10 minutes or more in composition consisting of 20 parts of pitch and 1 part of tallow. They were used to illuminate our own territory.

Pitched Fascines

These were made by dipping twigs of combustible wood about 20 inches long and 4 inches in diameter in the same composition that was used for the tarred links.

Torches

These were made by boiling old rope or a slow match in a solution of water and niter. After it became perfectly dry, it was wrapped around a piece of pine wood and was then covered with mixture of equal parts of sulphur and mealed powder moistened with brandy. The intervals between the cords were filled with paste consisting of:

Parts.

Pitch..........................

3

Venice turpentine.............................

3

Turpentine..............................

1/2

Incendiary Match

Composition for 100 lights consisted of:

Lbs.

Oxs

Saltpeter........................

9

10

Sulphur..........................

2

6 1/2

Red orpiment (AS2S3) ............................

11

These ingredients were thoroughly mixed and were then pressed into a hemispherical cup 2 1/2 inches in diameter, made of seasoned wood with a handle the size of a 13-inch fuse. This was primed with a strand of quick match and covered with paper which was pasted to the bottom of the cup.