29. Car. II, Cap. 3 (A. D. 1676).

For prevention of many fraudulent practices, which are commonly endeavored to be upheld by perjury and subornation of perjury; (2) be it enacted by the King's most excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the lords spiritual and temporal, and the commons, in this present parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, That from and after the four and twentieth day of June, which shall be in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred seventy and seven, all leases, estates, interests of freehold, or terms of years, or any uncertain interest of, in, to or out of any messuages, manors, lands, tenements or hereditaments, made or created by livery and seisin only, or by parol, and not put in writing, and signed by the parties so making or creating the same, or their agents thereunto lawfully authorized by writing, shall have the force and effect of leases or estates at will only, and shall not either in law or equity be deemed or taken to have any other or greater force or effect; any consideration for making any such parol or estates, or any former law or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding.

II. Except, nevertheless, all leases not exceeding the term of three years from the making thereof, whereupon the rent reserved to the landlord during such term, shall amount unto two thirds parts at the least of the full improved value of the thing demised.

III. And moreover, That no leases, estates or interests, either of freehold, or terms of years, or any uncertain interest, not being copyhold or customary interest, of, in, to or out of any messuages, manors, lands, tenements or hereditaments, shall at any time after the said four and twentieth day of June, be assigned, granted or surrendered, unless it be by deed or note in writing, signed by the party so assigning, granting or surrendering the same, or their agents thereunto lawfully authorized by writing, or by act and operation of law.

IV. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the said four and twentieth day of June no action shall be brought whereby to charge any executor or administrator upon any special promise, to answer damages out of his own estate; (2) or whereby to charge the defendant upon any special promise to answer for the debt, default or miscarriages of another person; (3) or to charge any person upon any agreement made upon consideration of marriage; (4) or upon any contract or sale of lands, tenements or hereditaments, or any interest in or concerning them; (5) or upon any argee-ment that is not to be performed within the space of one year from the making thereof; (6) unless the agreement upon which such action shall be brought, or some memorandum or note thereof, shall be in writing, and signed by the party to be charged therewith or some other person thereunto by him lawfully authorized.

V. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the said four and twentieth day of June all devises and bequests of any lands or tenements, devisable either by force of the statute of wills or by this statute, or by force of the custom of Kent, or by the custom of any borough, or any other particular custom, shall be in writing, and signed by the party so devising the same, or by some other person in his presence and by his express directions, and shall be attested and subscribed in the presence of the said devisor by three or four credible witnesses, or else they shall be utterly void and of none effect.

VI. And moreover, no devise in writing of lands, tenements or hereditaments, nor any clause thereof, shall at any time after the said four and twentieth day of June, be revocable, otherwise than by some other will or codicil in writing, or other writing declaring the same, or by burn-cancelling, tearing or obliterating the same by the testator himself, or in his presence and by his directions and consent; (2) but all devises and bequests of lands and tenements shall remain and continue in force, until the same be burnt, cancelled, torn or obliterated by the testator, or his directions, in manner aforesaid, or unless the same be altered by some other will or codicil in writing, or other writing of the devisor, signed in the presence of three or four witnesses, declaring the same; any former law or usage to the contrary notwithstanding.

VII. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the said four and twentieth day of June all declarations or creations of trusts or confidences of any lands, tenements or hereditaments, shall be manifested and proved by some writing signed by the party who is by law enabled to declare such trust, or by his last will in writing, or else they shall be utterly void and of none effect.

VIII. Provided always, That where any conveyance shall be made of any lands or tenements by which a trust or confidence shall or may arise or result by the implication or construction of law, or be transferred or extinguished by an act or operation of law, then and in every such case such trust or confidence shall be of the like force and effect as the same would have been in this statute had not been made; anything therein before contained to the contrary notwithstanding.

IX. And be it further enacted, That all grants and assignments of any trust or confidence shall likewise be in writing, signed by the party granting or assigning the same, or by such last will or devise, or else shall likewise be utterly void and of none effect.

X. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the said four and twentieth day of June it shall and may be lawful for every sheriff or other officer to whom any writ or precept is or shall be directed, at the suit of any person or persons, of, for and upon any judgment, statute or recognizance hereafter to be made or had, to do make and deliver execution unto the party in that behalf suing, of all such lands, tenements, rectories, tithes, rents and hereditaments, as any other person or persons be in any manner of wise seized or possessed, or hereafter shall be seized or possessed, in trust for him against whom execution is so sued, like as the sheriff or other officer might or ought to have done, if the said party against whom execution hereafter shall be so sued, had been seized of such lands, tenements, rectories, tithes, rents or other hereditaments of such estate as they be seized of in trust for him at the time of the said execution sued; (2) which lands, tenements, rectories, tithes, rents and other hereditaments, by force and virtue of such execution, shall accordingly be held and enjoyed freed and discharged from all incumbrances of such person or persons as shall be so seized or possessed in trust for the persons against whom such execution shall be sued; (3) and if any cestuy que trust hereafter shall die, leaving a trust in fee-simple to descent to his heir, there and in every such case such trust shall be deemed and taken, and is hereby declared to be, assets by descent, and the heir shall be liable to and chargeable with the obligation of his ancestors for and by reason of such assets, as fully and amply as he might or ought to have been, if the estate in law had descended to him in possession in like manner as the trust descended; any law, custom or usage to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding.