All law can be classified either as substantive law or as adjective law. Substantive law embraces all those provisions which relate to the rights either of individuals or of society at large, and of the wrongs which infringe such rights. Adjective law has to do with the rules under which these rights are vindicated, and these wrongs redressed. The great mass of the law at the present time is substantive, as can be seen by a glance at the chart of the law contained in this volume. The average law student will spend eighty per cent of the time given to his entire course on the various branches of substantive law. To see how greatly this proportion varied in earlier times, we have only to turn to the writings of Bracton, the great English law writer of the thirteenth century; this writer takes up the law under the heads of Persons, Things, and Actions and devotes 7, 91, and 356 folios respectively to these subjects. The first two divisions cover substantive law, the third, adjective.

15 The Foundations of Legal Liability - Street - Vol. III , pp. 3 and 4.

The relations existing between rights and remedies are in fact entirely reversed from those existing in early times. To-day a remedy is given wherever there is a legal right; formerly (i. e. after a legal system of any kind had been established) a legal right only existed where there was a remedy which could be used to enforce it.