The best classification of fraud is probably that given by Lord Hardwicke, in the famous case of Earl of Chesterfield vs. Janssen.1 The four classes of fraud as outlined in this classification are as follows:

1. Frauds arising from facts and circumstances of imposition.

2. Frauds apparent from the intrinsic nature and subject matter of the bargain.

3. Frauds presumed from the circumstances and condition of the parties.

4. Frauds which are an imposition and deceit on third persons not parties to the transaction.

The first class comes under the head of actual fraud, the last three under the head of constructive fraud.