This section is from the book "Popular Law Library Vol7 Equity Jurisprudence, Trusts, Equity Pleading", by Albert H. Putney. Also available from Amazon: Popular Law-Dictionary.
A complete definition of actual fraud is impossible. The ingenuity of man in devising methods of obtaining an unfair advantage over his fellow man is so resourceful and varied as to defeat any attempt to cover the whole field by a single definition. In general, in every case of actual fraud, there must be present those elements required in the tort action for deceit.2
1 2 Ves. Br., 1 Atlk., 301.
2 See subject of Tort, Vol. IX, Sub. 8, Sec. 55.