In Gonzales v. "Williams6 it was held that a native of Porto Rico who was an inhabitant of that island at the time of its cession to the United States is not an "alien" within the meaning of the act of Congress of March 3, 1891, providing for the detention and deportation of alien immigrants likely to become public charges. No position is taken by the court, however, with reference to the question of citizenship. In its opinion the court say: "We. are not required to discuss . . . the contention of Gonzales' counsel that the cession of Porto Rico accomplished the naturalization of its people; or that of the commissioner Degetau, in his excellent argument as amicus curiae, that a citizen of Porto Rico, under the act of 1900, is necessarily a citizen of the United States. The question is the narrow one whether Gonzales was an alien within the meaning of that term as used in the act of 1891. . . . We think it clear that the act relates to foreigners as respects this country, to persons owing allegiance to a foreign government, and citizens and subjects thereof; and that citizens of Porto Rico, whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States; who live in the peace of the dominion of the United States; the organic law of whose domicil was enacted by the United States, and is enforced through officials sworn to support the Constitution of the United States, - are not 'aliens,' and upon their arrival by water at the ports of our mainland are not; alien immigrants,' within the intent and meaning of the act of 1891."

6 192 U. S. 1; 24 Sup. Ct. Rep. 171; 48 L. ed. 317.

29.