Integral formation consists in developing to the highest degree all the hereditary potentialities. Education is, therefore, very much more than the methodical socialization of the young generation as Durckheim believed. Actually it consists in the gentle, tenacious and powerful action of the educator on the feelings, intelligence and body of his pupil. We know that, during growth, the body can be modeled by five groups of factors. Firstly, by physical factors such as heat, cold, wind, rain and the variations of these factors. Secondly, by chemical factors contained in food and drink. Thirdly, by physiological factors which consist principally in the discipline of alimentation, intestinal evacuation, sleep, muscular and organic activities and also in the unconscious effort of the adaptive systems and in the conscious effort of manual work and games. Fourthly, come the intellectual factors by which the child learns how to learn. In other words he learns how to look, how to remember, how to judge, how to make contact with reality. Fifthly, there are the moral factors or habits of conduct. The most important of the latter are training of the will, self-control, cleanliness, truthfulness, courage and the ability to distinguish sharply between good and evil. The educator must never limit himself to using only one of these groups of factors. It is also necessary that these agencies should be daily employed in forming a child from the earliest possible moment, in fact from the day after its birth. This is why it is far more necessary for a mother than for a teacher to know the existence of the mechanisms of development and the way to utilize them.

Any healthy child easily learns the physiological, mental and social rules proper to its age. Apprenticeship to life is at first purely training. But it is the training of little creatures capable of listening to reason and liking to be treated as reasonable beings. One must use arguments appropriate to the child's mind. A child easily understands that such and such an act displeases its parents. It is, like a little dog, sensitive to the praise or blame of those it loves.

If it has a good heredity, it is easily led by feeling. But, as it has no judgment, it should be strictly subjected to its parents' will. The teaching of the laws of life is, at the beginning, entirely practical. It consists, first, in the child's experimental verification of the line which separates the permissible from the forbidden; then, in the implanting of the idea of good and evil. It is only later that it can be initiated into the idea of law and the duty of thinking and acting in daily life according to absolute and unchangeable principles.

But, long before the reason is sufficiently developed to grasp the rational basis of the rules of conduct, physiological and mental formation should already be well advanced. It is in earliest infancy that sight, hearing, smell and taste should be educated.

This is the time, too, when manual skill and nervous stability should be developed. Young children should be taught to control their excitability, to develop their will power and their capacity for effort. As Erasmus wrote, we learn everything willingly from those we love. Those who are experienced in training young animals as well as in training young children, know the profound truth of this observation. As Fenelon wisely taught, pleasure is the most important element in training a child.

Human beings, whatever their age, are far more powerfully moved by feeling than by reason. They submit themselves far more readily to the hard laws of life if these appear to them as the will of God instead of the expression of some blind force. They are more willing to obey a person than a principle. The impassible God of Aristotle leaves them indifferent but they tend to love a God who is personally interested in them. Particularly is this true if this God did not disdain, only two thousand years ago, to manifest Himself on earth in a body like their own. Thus religious teaching in general and particularly that of the Christian mystique has immense educational value.

It is, of course, a waste of time to talk to children of theology and duty. But we should follow Kant's advice and present God to them very early indeed as an invisible father who watches over them and to whom they can address prayers. The true mode of honoring God consists in fulfilling His will. And the will of God is undoubtedly that the child, like the man, should behave reasonably.

The esthetic sense is very close to the religious; beauty has a great educative power. When it takes the form of sacrifice, heroism and holiness it irresistibly attracts men toward the heights. It is this beauty which gives life its meaning, nobility and joy. We must show every child that any existence, however humble and painful it may be, be-comes radiant when it is illuminated by an ideal of beauty and love.