Let us at this point draw a distinction, and a wide one. Under the term celibates we include all males past the age of puberty who are not married; but it by no means follows that this celibacy means continence, and still less chastity. The man is continent who commits neither fornication, nor adultery, nor secret vice; but for all that, his mind may be " foul as hell within," and he may nourish his fancy on vile imaginings. Such a one is not chaste. Only he, pure in thought and in life, who withstands and overcomes the promptings of his carnal nature, deserves this noble epithet; he it is who dwells in the condition of chaste celibacy; and we say it at once, physically speaking, he alone escapes the disadvantages of celibacy, and he escapes them completely. We emphatically condemn, as a most pernicious doctrine, one calculated to work untold evil, and to foster the worst forms of vice, the theory that any injury whatever rises from a chaste celibacy. The organs are not weakened, nor their power lost, nor is there a tendency to spermatorrhoea, nor to congestions, nor to any one of those ills which certain vicious writers, and certain superficial and careless physicians have attributed to this state. No condition of life is more thoroughly consistent with perfect mental and physical vigor than absolute chastity. Those only suffer any ill results from celibacy who are impure in thought or act, and for them, it is true, nature has devised bitter tortures, and in flicts them with pitiless severity.

Looking first at general results, we put the question: Who live longer, the married or the celibate? The answer is the same, seek it in the statistics of what country you will. In France, in England, in Scotland, in the United States, there are, in, proportion to their respective number, more than twice as many married men still living at the age of seventy, as single (more exactly 26.9 married to 11.7 unmarried, Becquerel). This is alarming odds against the bachelors. Well might the registrar of Scotland say that it almost means, " Marry or die."

To what are we to attribute this difference ?

The causes are not hard to assign. The married man leads a more regular life, his indulgences are more temperate, rarely excessive, his meals are better served, his wife nurses him when he is ill, and surrounds him with a thousand tender solicitudes and precautions when he is well. His mind is employed on his avocation, or on pleasant thoughts and cares for his home circle. He has no unsatisfied yearnings, and he is not allowed vacant hours to sit in moody brooding over his future or his present ills. The sight and conversation of his children renew his own youth, and the relaxation he finds in joining their joyous sports instils into his frame something of the spirit and vigor of the boy.

How different the life of the celibate! Engrossed in elabo-rate and selfish cares for his health, he destroys the precautions of months by the excess of a night. Given to secret sins, he is exposed to destructive diseases; or else, not satisfying his propensities legitimately, nor yet controlling them, he plunges into reckless dissipation and license. Which class furnishes the most insane ? The celibates. In which is death from delirium tremens more frequent? In the celibates. Who more frequently are suicides? Again the celibates. These are all statistical truths, and they tell their own story.

Looking at these parallel streams in which flow the lives of men. we may apply to them the words of Alfred de Mus-set's pretty poem:-

"II est deux routes dans la vie: L'une paisible et fleurie, Qui descend sa pente cherie Sans se plaindre et sans soupirer. L'autre, comme un torrent sans digue, Dana une eternelle fatigue, Sous les pieds de l'enfant prodigue, Roule la pierre d'Ixion."

Whenever through an excitable temperament, a lack of self-government, or long habit, a man feels it impossible for him to live a virtuous life, he exposes himself, if he still slums marriage, to serious mental and physical disease. Worse than this, he doubly condemns himself in the eyes of the moralist, for he drags others from the path of virtue to share and to minister to his own debasement. "The annals of eternity alone," forcibly remarks the Rev. John Todd, in his Hints Addressed to the Young Men of the United States, "can tell the amount of the guilt of the sin of impurity." And. as a physician, we may add those annals alone can reveal the destruction of health and life, the misuse of talents, and the wide-spread physical evils which follow in the same train. We shall proceed to show in detail what these are; but we cannot too often repeat that they are not the consequences of celibacy in itself, but of unchaste celibacy. The pure in heart, like Bunyan's pilgrim, passes these roaring lions and these ravenous fires unscathed, and the voluptuary alone falls their victim.

It will be seen that these disadvantages attend chiefly upon those bachelors who lead immoral lives. We need not conceal from ourselves that the vast majority of them do so. We are perfectly cognizant of the fact that the vices of single men support the most flagrant evils of modern society. Hence the sociologist finds very strong reasons to urge the policy of all men marrying, and also of marrying as soon as they attain the age of virility. Regarding the question as a national one, it were to be hoped that such a regulation could be put in practice.

[Authors and Works referred to on Celibacy.-Ed. Reich, Geschiehte des ehelichen Lebens, pp. 509, 510; Casper, Med. Statistik, Bd. II.; Becquerel, Traite d'Hygiene privee, p. 572; W. Acton, On the Reproductive Organs, p. 73, et al. ; Reports of the Registrar-General; Rev. John Todd, Hints to the Young Men of the United State*.]