1. Find other examples of cycles in nature besides those mentioned in the text.

2. Consult the latest authorities about the cycle of sun-spots; of rainfall.

3. An important problem from many points of view is that of the glacial epochs - their cause, whether or not they come at definite intervals, and if they do, what the length of the cycle is and where the present stands within it. Consult the latest authorities as to the progress which is being made toward the solution of this problem.

4. Review the last chapter of Huntington's The Pulse of Asia. A group of students might cooperate and give special reports on other references to Huntington.

5. If access can be had to a file of newspapers running back several weeks, select some important event as far back as possible and study out the successive changes in the nature of the communications relating to it. Consult the weekly and monthly periodicals also.

6. Trace the course of some movement in education or politics which you have studied.

7. Trace some institution with which you are connected through a cycle of change.

8. Does history justify the statement made above about the unique privilege of each generation? Have people, as a matter of fact, commonly thought about themselves in that way? Arrange for a debate on this question, preferably with reference to some period of history which the class has studied recently. Do we to-day so think about ourselves? Ask persons over seventy years of age if they so thought about themselves.

9. Write in full outline the stages of the war-peace cycle. Use data from the present war and preceding wars. Are high prices, for instance, the normal accompaniment of war? If so, how long after the cessation of hostilities do they keep up? Do they come down gradually or suddenly? Admit each step or phase into the outline only as it is supported by several instances drawn from different wars and contradicted by none. Patrick, The Psychology of Relaxation, pp. 219-252; Humphrey, Mankind, pp. 118-150, 214-223; Veblen, The Nature of Peace; the references below to Burton, Jones, and Moore; American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 23, pp. 1-66, a symposium; pp. 747-753, George; pp. 754-762, Finney.


1. Is it your experience that a congenial group becomes stale after a time?

2. Is it a helpful philosophy to always look for something to happen just the opposite of what now prevails?

3. Would it be of any present importance to know that another glacial epoch will be due in a thousand years? That the United States a hundred years from now will have only two thirds of the present rainfall? That a commercial crisis will come within the next five years? See the table on page 283.

4. Has each war that America has seen marked the opening of a new epoch of progress?

5. Elaborate this thought:

... It is well to remember that battle and aristocracy, although quite different in their ordinary associations, are after all about as nearly related as two things can be. Democracy, too, is no synonym for peace, but means only preparation for more skill, more efficiency, in conflict. . . . - American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 21, p. 13, Lloyd, "The Duplicity of Democracy."


American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 11, pp. 49-59, Ellwood, "A Psychological Theory of Revolutions"; Vol. 13, pp. 541-560, Elkin, "The Problem of Civilization in the Twentieth Century"; Vol. 21, pp. 1-14, Lloyd, "The Duplicity of Democracy "; ibid., pp. 15-29, Yarros," Human Progress: the Idea and the Reality."

Burton, Financial Crises and Periods of Industrial and Commercial Depression, especially pp. 18-48.

Chapin, Social Evolution, pp. 140-146.

Cooley, Social Process, pp. 30-34.

Croll, Climate and Time. Attributes secular changes in climate to the eccentricity of the earth's orbit and the precession of the equinoxes.

Ellwood, Introduction to Social Psychology, pp. 170-187.

Geikie, The Great Ice Age, pp. 776-816. Discussion of the causes.

Gibbon, Decline and Fall of Rome, Chapter XXVI.

Harper's Monthly Magazine, Vol. 132, pp. 919-928, Huntington, "Death's Valley and Our Future Climate."

Humphrey, Mankind, pp. 78-96.

* Huntington, Civilization and Climate, pp. 220-225, climate; pp. 251-270, civilization.

Huntington, The Climatic Factor. Based chiefly on observations in America; contains technical data such as measurements of the growth of trees.

Huntington, Palestine and Its Transformations, especially pp. 373-404, "Climate and History."

Huntington, The Pulse of Asia, pp. 1-5, 216-222, 262-279; pp. 38-46, Kashmir; pp. 169-190, Chira; pp. 202-209, Niya; pp. 280-294, Lop-Nor; pp. 300-314, Turfan; pp. 315-328, Iran; pp. 320-358, Caspian Sea. The results are summarized in the last chapter, pp. 350-385, "The Geographic Basis of History."

International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 23, pp. 127-143, Maclver, "Do Nations Grow Old?"

Jones, Economic Crises, especially pp. 131-152. Kelsey, The Physical Basis of Society, pp. 45-49. Moore, Economic Cycles: Their Law and Cause.

* Osborn, Men of the Old Stone Age, pp. 32-42. Especially good on the fluctuations of pleistocene climate.

* Patrick, The Psychology of Relaxation, pp. v-25, 255-280.

Rogers, Economic Interpretation of History, pp. 16, 56, 57, 266. See also his Six Centuries of Work and Wages and History of Agriculture and Prices in England for the years of famine caused by excessive rainfall.

Sidis, The Psychology of Sugges ion, pp. 343-364.

Spencer, First Principles, pp. 250-281.

Spencer, Psychology Vol. I, pp. 88-91, 95, 274.

Ward, L. F., Pure Sociology, pp. 222-231.

Ward, R. DeC, Climate, pp. 338-363, "Changes of Climate." Regards the evidence insufficient to show that climate has changed within historical time. Compare with Huntington.

Wright, The Ice Age in North America.