In later surveys effort has been made to avoid arousing the antagonisms which attended these two, especially by stating criticism of the work of teachers only in general terms so that the faults of no one are put on exhibition.

... In this report recommendations are made with respect to the further training of teachers, and the qualifications for those who may later enter the school system, but the commission has been careful not to express any opinion concerning any individual teacher or other employee of the board of school trustees. This position seems to them to be fundamental in all survey work done by specialists, called in from outside the regular administrative or supervisory staff. - Report of a Survey of the School System of Butte, Montana, p. 4.

The report of the survey of Portland, Oregon, is published as a volume in the School Efficiency Series along with the reports of New York City. The surveys of Springfield, Illinois, and Cleveland, Ohio, were organized by Dr. Ayres, the educational representative of the Russell Sage Foundation, and their reports give large space to the commendable features of the schools. They, like the Butte report, make much of scientific tests and measurements. The Springfield survey was made as a part of the general social survey of the city. The Cleveland survey was the most elaborate and expensive of any yet made except that of New York. Each feature of it was published in a separate book of pocket size and handsome make-up, twenty-five of them in all.

In Illinois a survey of the schools of the state was undertaken at the initiative of the State Teachers' Association, with the special aim to find the "elements of power and strength," "to know the successes that these may be extended." In Leavenworth, Kansas, the survey was started by the teachers themselves, and the first funds for it they contributed from their own salaries. The investigators in this case contributed their services and were paid only their necessary expenses. In Topeka there was a general social survey, with the slogan, "A city surveyed is a city unafraid." The Ohio survey, to which reference has already been made, was inaugurated in the following manner:

There was no "playing hooky" in Ohio on November 14, everybody was in school on that day, parents as well as children, even doctors, lawyers, college presidents, members of the State Legislature - in short, every one who was interested in the welfare of the State's schools and school-children. Governor Cox had set aside that date as "School Survey Day" and had asked the citizens to assemble in the school-houses for the discussion of the educational needs of the community, and for the election of delegates to the congress which will meet in Columbus on December 5 and 6 to formulate suggestions for presentment to the Legislature at the special session in January which the Governor has called for the express purpose of dealing with the school problem.

Last winter Governor Cox appointed a Commission of two men and a woman to find out how the schools of the State could be bettered. The Bureau of Municipal Research in New York City sent Dr. H. L. Brittain to aid the Commission, which undertook a study of the whole situation, enlisting the cooperation of the State Department of Education, the Federation of Women's Clubs, the Daughters of the American Revolution, the Congress of Mothers, the Collegiate Alumnae, labor organizations, and, in short, every individual and group of individuals that had suggestions to offer. ... - The Outlook, Vol. 105, p. 603, "An Experiment in Cooperation."

This enlisting of local and popular initiative in effecting reforms which necessarily involve disagreeable features is typical of a change which has long been in progress in government, and to which the next chapter will be devoted.