1. "What differences have you noticed between boys and girls as to the kind of primary groups they form?"

2. Describe cases you have known where boys and girls were in the same congenial groups.

3. Describe cases you have known in which it was desirable for a teacher to study play groups or gangs existing outside of school.

4. Give the history of some primary group you have known well, preferably one of which you yourself were a member. (To be written but not read in public.)

5. Report orally to class on Cooley's three chapters in which his. doctrine of primary groups is developed. Topic 1 above and problem 4 below are from a leaflet of "Study Questions" which he has prepared to go with Social Organization.


1. Must congenial groups always grow, or can they be constructed?

2. How often are they identical with formal organizations such as a baseball team, literary society, fraternity, an entire class or grade?

3. May a congenial group within a class or grade be helpful to the school? Is it desirable to divide a class occasionally into its component groups, and to let the groups work simultaneously while remaining in the same room?

4. "How far and just how do you think that play-groups should be recognized and fostered in the public schools?"

5. Should the teacher seek to gain admission to the congenial groups of the school?

6. May the school be a good school even if the teacher never fraternizes with the pupils? Give examples.

7. Is it more important in some grades than others, and with some kinds of subject matter than others, that the pupils should include the teacher when they say "we"?

8. In a case of the kind referred to in the last sentence of the second paragraph from the end of this chapter, should the superintendent relieve the situation by transferring the pupil? Should that much concession be made to personal antipathy, or should all be made to understand that they must overcome their antipathies or get along with them the best way they can? Write up some case you have known.


Bernheimer and Cohen, Boys' Clubs. Chapter X (Democracy), pp. 81-94, treats of girls' clubs.

Cooley, Social Organization, pp. 23-57.

Educational Review, Vol. 43, pp. 168-191, R. C. Hill, "Secret Societies in High Schools."

Ellwood, Sociology in its Psychological Aspects, p. 346.

Ferris, Girls' Clubs, pp. 42-70, The " Members of the Club."

Fiske, Boy Life and Self-Government, pp. 107-118, 169-191.

Giddings, Principles of Sociology, p. 376.

Gunckel, Boyville.

Hayes, Introduction to the Study of Sociology, pp. 74-77.

Johnston, The Modern High School, pp. 498-516, J. C. Hanna, "High School Fraternities and the Social Life of the Schools."

King, Education for Social Efficiency, pp. 141-149.

King, Social Aspects of Education, pp. 236-263.

O'shea, Social Development and Education, pp. 248-264, 295-315, 493-498, 509-515-

Puffer, The Boy and His Gang.

School and Society, Vol. 4, pp. 49, 292, 313, 363, articles on excessive sociability among students.

Scott, Social Education, pp. 1-22, 94-101, 102-169.

Smith, Introduction to Educational Sociology, pp. 49-56.