Now that the foregoing discussion is completed there is a large qualification which must be made to it. The qualification applies with special point to what was said about public opinion and popular sentiment on pages 133-137, although it is really the background of the entire chapter. These processes of the social mind have been represented as matters of cold intellect, because that is the easiest way to convey a provisional view of them. But the psychologists have been teaching us for the last quarter century that we are all guided more by feeling than by intellect, and the social psychologists have shown how people in the mass act with very little intellect except as they are organized. Therefore popular sentiment matures through the stages of popular impression, discussion, and public opinion, only in a settled society, with reference to some new matter of large importance, and among the more responsible leaders of the population. Most talk, even when serious, is not debating real issues, and there is little public opinion in the sense of a clearly defined belief. Among the masses there is simply a common feeling which has been partly handed down from the past and partly developed by recent experiences. The few who do not share the feeling make no open protest, or if they do are promptly silenced. It comes to the individual mostly by suggestion or as the affective accompaniment induced by his own actions. When every member of the school gets out on the grandstand and yells himself hoarse cheering for his team, or is compelled for weeks to perform all kinds of extra work to prepare a school pageant, there grows up in the school community a feeling of loyalty which has little basis in a rational balancing of the school's merits and demerits. This school spirit, local patriotism, esprit de corps, becomes a very real thing when each generation of students takes pains to pass it on to its successor. Old buildings, trophies, relics, songs, yells, and ceremonies help to keep the tradition alive. The ordeal connected with the initiating of a new member into a fraternity, although it may be absurd and even dangerous, finds some justification in that it is a never-to-be-forgotten experience which all the other members have been through.

Gradually, also, the sense of being a part of a school dawns upon the child. For instance, a school exhibition or entertainment is arranged and each pupil feels that it is a collective undertaking and takes pride in the impression made by his room or by his school. ... - King, Education for Social Efficiency, p. 142.

The operation by which folkways are produced consists in the frequent repetition of petty acts, often by great numbers acting in concert or, at least, acting in the same way when face to face with the same need. The immediate motive is interest. It produces habit in the individual and custom in the group. ... - Sumner, Folkways, p. 3.

. . . Rhythm is the great get-together agent of the world, the mightiest ally of the belonging instinct. It is essential even to physical cooperation of the closest sort. . . . You cannot get a big trunk into a cart or a dory down the beach; you cannot go, in anything, beyond what one man, or a succession of men acting severally, can accomplish, - except as you induce the Muses to act with you. . . .

. . . When people sing or march or dance together, each knows with accuracy, as in the ring game, what all the rest are doing and are going to do and in great part how they feel about it; and each knows that the other knows - and so on; to the depth that the song or movement goes the mutual understanding is complete. . . .

. . . Every college has its song or yell - the two species of vociferation are not always distinguishable. Every successful nation, church, fraternity, has its anthem or its rhythmic ritual. . . .

Rhythm has the power of kindling the social imagination. It enables people to project forward a given purpose with that warmth and reality that make it feasible. . . .

. . . It is of vital interest to the State that its children be given full opportunity to form these infant commonwealths and to sing and dance themselves into the spirit of them. - Lee, Play in Education, pp. 150-163.