Government is an affair of classes. There is a governing class and a governed class. Sometimes there is a sharp differentiation between them, as between employers and employees, or between teachers and pupils in a school. Sometimes, on the other hand, the one shades gradually into the other like the office-holders and non-office-holders in a literary society; the classes are there just the same, only there is no formal separation between them. A certain degree of seniority in the organization is requisite in the governing class; time is required to get acquainted with the particular situation so as to be able to direct others with success. Even a person newly appointed to a governing position, like a superintendency, must depend on experienced subordinates at first.

It is quite obvious that all local government even on the smallest scale is, and must be, aristocratic. It is not possible for every peasant to undertake the office of Mayor; this will be filled by the thriving yeoman. It requires the leisure which only a certain prosperity can give. This alone, by excluding the mass of the population, modifies the law which tends towards Democracy. No State decree can alter this social necessity. ... A certain superiority of rulers to ruled is inherent in all government, let it come through education, wealth, birth, or what you will. - Treitschke, Politics, Vol. I, pp. 162-163.

. . . Twenty men (if they be not all idiots, perhaps if they be) can never come together but there will be such a difference in them, that about a third will be wiser, or at least less foolish than all the rest; these upon acquaintance, though it be but small, will be discovered, and, as stags that have the largest heads, lead the herd; for while the six, discoursing and arguing one with another, show the eminence of their parts, the fourteen discover things that they never thought on; or are cleared in divers truths which had formerly perplexed them. Wherefore, in matter of common concernment, difficulty, or danger, they hang upon their lips, as children upon their fathers; and the influence thus acquired by the six, the eminence of whose parts are found to be a stay and comfort to the fourteen, is the authority of the fathers. Wherefore this can be no other than a natural aristocracy diffused by God, throughout the whole body of mankind to this end and purpose; and therefore such as the people have not only a natural but a positive obligation to make use of as their guides; as where the people of Israel are commanded to "Take wise men, and understanding, and known among their tribes, to be made rulers over them." - Coker, Readings in Political Philosophy, PP. 369, 370, James Harrington (1611-1677), "The Oceana."

In a school of five hundred students of both sexes the important offices in the student organizations are held by less than fifty persons, and an excessive proportion of them by the members of one male society with a membership limited to thirty.

In order to distribute the benefits which come to a young person from holding office, and prevent the student organizations from making excessive demands on the time of the more capable students, a rule has been adopted assigning a certain number of points to each office, and then limiting by points the number of offices which any one student may hold at one time.