Upon the whole, the strength is in excess of the development, and the condition is favorable.
The weak points are the waist, loins, and abdomen.
Figs. C, D, E, as shown in Chart II., represent a young man of a different type. He is of Irish descent, aged twenty-two years six months, 5 feet 4 inches in height, and weighs 117 pounds.
In this case the weight and height are more nearly in accord, and the weight is a little more uniformly distributed.
The striking peculiarity in his case is the difference between the bone measurements and the muscle measurements for corresponding parts, - as at the knee, elbow, wrist, etc. Are the bones proportionately very small, or the muscles proportionately very large? From a comparison of the weight and height it will be seen that a large per cent of the bone measurements are in advance of those of the same class on the tables to which this young man evidently belongs. We must conclude, therefore, that the muscular development is in excess of that warranted by the bony framework; and that the size of the bones in the arms and legs has been increased to meet the demands put upon them.
When we compare the total strength as shown by the chart with that of the total development, we find the former greatly in excess. The sum of the measurements would merely entitle the young man to a place in the 30 per cent class, while the total strength-test would entitle him to a place in the 97 per cent class. The falling off in the strength of the forearm is accounted for by an impairment of the muscles of the hand, due to an injury.
In summing up the condition of this individual, we are warranted in saying that he has made the best of himself in point of development. Under more favorable circumstances he might have attained greater stature and weight; but his ancestry and nurture prescribed the limit, and no amount of physical training at this late date can make up the deficiency. By physical exercise under good conditions the development of the muscles has been lifted above that of the average or typical man, and the strength made greatly to exceed it. A few months' special training might bring the measurement of the thighs to the normal standard, and add a little to the development of other parts; but it would add nothing to the health, permanent strength, or longevity of the individual.
Figs. F, G, H, and Chart III. represent an individual of another type - of American ancestry.
His age is thirty-three years, weight 161 pounds, and height 5 feet 9.7 inches.
Upon referring to the chart, it will be noticed that the most remarkable characteristic of this figure is its approach to perfect symmetry in some parts and its marked divergence from it in others. The weight, which is a trifle heavy for the height, is very uniformly distributed, the only excess being in the region of the chest, hips, and arms.
The relative proportion of the different heights of the body is very nearly true. The only divergence is a slight falling off in the sitting height, which is probably due to the shortness of the neck. The neck and chest are large in circumference.
The excess in the chest-girth may be accounted for by the prominence of the shoulder-blades; for the girth of the waist is consistent with other measurements. The girth of the hips, thighs, and knees indicates the nearest approach to perfect symmetry that it is possible to attain.
The calves are a trifle small, and the insteps somewhat flat; but for these slight deficiencies, and the fact that the upper and lower leg are a few centimetres short, the lower extremities of this individual would be perfect in form.
The upper and fore arms are too large for the body and limbs, and a trifle inconsistent in themselves, the wrist being relatively greater in circumference than the elbows.
The falling off in the depth of the chest is very marked, dropping, as it does, from the 80 per cent to the 5 per cent class.
This is decidedly the weak point in this individual. It is not apparent in the illustrations, nor would it be detected readily in the individual.
It is attributable to an inward or anteroposterior curve of the spine, between the shoulder-blades, and a depression of the lower part of the sternum, or breast-bone.
There has been considerable compensation, as evidenced by the size of the chest and the lateral prominence of the ribs; but it will be observed that the breathing capacity, although higher than we would expect from the depth of the chest, is still lower than it should be.
The depth of the abdomen falls in the 80 per cent class, as do nearly all the breadths and lengths, the only exception being the trifling deficiency in the breadth of head and the slight excess in the breadth of hips.
In most persons the horizontal length is about one-half of an inch greater than the height. This is undoubtedly due to the straightening of the spine and the relaxing of the cartilages while in the horizontal position. In this case the spine is comparatively straight, so that little difference is shown between the standing and horizontal length.
The strength-tests in this case, as in the others, approach near to the maximum class.
Upon glancing over the chart as a whole, it will be readily seen that the normal position of this individual is in the 80 per cent class. Nearly all of the bone measurements which are not readily changed in adults fall on the 80 per cent line, while those of the soft parts which are more easily affected fall above this line. To bring the depth of the chest up to this standard by natural processes, although impossible now, would have been a simple matter in early youth. With this exception, the individual just considered could so develop himself by a judicious course of exercise as to approach very near to perfect symmetry.