In this case the dotted line on the chart, indicating the actual and relative standing of the individual at all the parts considered, would be perpendicular. This is the grand object to be attained. The straight line is the physical sign of health and longevity, of perfect structure and harmony of function, and a symmetrical development of the whole body.

The weight must not be too great, or the stature too short or tall; the limbs too massive for the body, or the body too heavy for the limbs; the head too large or too small, or the neck too short or too long and slender. A small, well-made engine, with all parts adjusted, will do more work than a larger one with parts loosely constructed and a great disproportion between the important members. So a small man, compactly built, with symmetrical proportions and a well-balanced organism, can accomplish more than a larger man less solidly made, with all parts wanting in symmetry and shapeliness. This law of adaptation and harmonious adjustment of parts prevails throughout the greater portion of the animal kingdom.

Among the civilized portion of the human race it is controverted by social laws that tend to foster an inharmonious development. The division of labor, for instance, has made it possible for a man to earn a livelihood and to maintain a footing in the world by the use of very few muscles and faculties. Under such circumstances the large head and massive shoulders and chest are not necessarily accompanied by a broad, substantial waist and pelvis and well-developed lower extremities. It is true that the waist and legs would have to bear the burden of the weight above if the individual engaged in any kind of physical activity in an upright position; but a person with his weight so unequally distributed would find it very irksome to walk or run, and would naturally avail himself of all the modern conveniences for locomotion. In choosing his life's work, the chances are that he would gravitate into some sedentary occupation in which he could render an equivalent service to any who were willing to do his back and leg work for him. Had he been advised to enter a gymnasium or join an athletic club for the purpose of improving his physical condition, he would probably have selected that exercise from which he could derive the greatest amount of pleasure with the least amount of effort. This would be something to call into play the muscles that were already strong. The result of this inharmonious development would be a further modification of structure, which would eventually throw the remaining organisms out of gear, and constitute a greater or less tendency to disease.

"Cultivate both mind and body along the line of the least resistance."

"Study yourselves; and most of all note well wherein kind nature meant you to excel.

Chart III., plotted from figures F, G, and H.

Chart III., plotted from figures F, G, and H.

These are the sentiments that are shaping the tendencies of the age, and moulding our systems of mental and physical education. In neither case are we looking for improvement in blood and tissue, or for the promotion of organic perfection. The leading object is to achieve immediate success in social aims and distinctions; and a false method is taken of attaining even this. In the effort the welfare of both body and mind is frequently jeopardized, and the foundation for vigorous health undermined.

Nowhere are these tendencies to degeneration more apparent than in the radical changes that take place in the physique through impaired nutrition. These changes can readily be observed by comparing the measurements of those in feeble condition with the typical or normal standard as shown by the chart. This comparison need not be limited to individuals; for it is fully as applicable to schools, clubs, classes, or communities.

While the primary object of the chart is to offer the youth of the land an incentive to proper physical training, and to place in the hands of instructors a key to the strong and weak points of their pupils, the author hopes, as the data from different sources accumulate, to show the anthropologist, the naturalist, the physician, the surgeon, the artist, and the sculptor, the importance of the tables in the pursuit of their respective professions.

To parents, in guiding the growth and development of their children; to teachers, in watching the effects of study and local conditions upon the health of their pupils; to superintendents of shops, mills, and factories; and to those who have charge of prisons, asylums, and penitentiaries, a knowledge of the typical proportions of the body are indispensable to the proper performance of their duties. To the sociologist and statesman, in tracing the influence of occupation and of town and city life upon the health and strength of a people; to the civil-service examiner, in selecting those best qualified to serve in certain capacities, to the life-insurance examiner, in deciding what risks to accept, etc., a thorough acquaintance with the physical signs of health and approaching disease is of the greatest importance.

In one or two subsequent papers I hope to show the influence of systematic training upon the growth and development of the young, to point out by means of the chart the physical characteristics of distinguished athletes, to show the influence of the higher education upon the physical development of women, and to compare the proportions of the human figure, according to the canons of art, with those determined by anthropometry.