The oarsman should have all the sleep he wants; and between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five he will need about nine hours in bed, if he does honest work in the boat. He should sleep in a well-ventilated room, and on a hair mattress and pillow, with no more covering than is necessary for warmth, and this will not be much. His sleep should be taken at regular hours. Besides the morning bath, one other cold bath daily may be taken after the row, or after the harder row if there are two; but the bath must be taken while perspiration is going on, that is, at once after the row is done. The bath should not be prolonged, and should be followed by a vigorous rubbing down with a dry towel. This rubbing may advantageously be followed by another rubbing of the limbs by the hands of an attendant, whose hands are moistened with spirits for the purpose. Care, however, should be taken to do the rubbing in a room sufficiently warm and free from draughts to avoid taking cold. If, for any reason, the oarsman has stopped perspiring before taking a bath, the bath should be in warm water.

The mind should have a rational occupation. Freedom from extraordinary care or unusual excitement should be insured. Regularity of both bodily and mental habits should be observed. While in the boat the closest attention should be given by-each man to his performance, and time enough should be taken when out of the boat to understand and to master what is required of him. If there is time, and the sole object in view is to win a race, much time may profitably be spent by every member of the crew in perfecting, by discussion or otherwise, the details of the stroke, or of the work of individuals, or of the crew as a whole. At all events, the mind should be kept healthy by the contemplation and the consideration of none but wholesome subjects.

While there should be a regularity in matters of food, sleep, and habits, and, in general, in exercise, the latter should not be allowed to become irksome through its monotony. It is better to give up rowing occasionally for a day, and substitute some other exercise of a recreative character, or rest altogether; and, if the preparation for a race lasts for six months, a vacation of a week ought to be taken when the time is half gone. But even then exercise ought not to be wholly abandoned; and the rest of the requirements, those relating to food, drink, sleep, etc., should be observed.

Few races ought to be undertaken, and none by new men, without at least three months of preparation. By this is not meant that, after a race is over, a man's habits may be radically changed. The true oarsman never essentially changes his habits. Unless his concerns prevent, he will always get plenty of sleep at regular hours, will eat nothing but the kinds of food described above, will not become a slave to any appetite, and will not give up athletic exercise. Such a man will be, in a sense, always in condition; without inconvenience, he will readily assume the more exacting obligations necessary to prepare for a race. A crew of such men may, of course, prepare for a contest in less than three months' time; but even they will do well to give as long a period as three months, if the race is to be any but a very short one.

The stroke to be rowed will depend somewhat upon circumstances. If it should happen that there be available for the stroke oarsman of the crew, a man who has already acquired a smooth, symmetrical, regular, and effective movement, it may be expedient to teach the rest of the crew his stroke, no matter what the style. Good results have been obtained from such a course. Good crew shell-rowing, no matter what the style of stroke, has certain requirements. The shell must be rowed so that it will not roll from side to side; so that it will not sink unnecessarily either at bow or stern, when the weight of the crew shifts as it is moved with the seats. The oar-blades must take the water on the "full reach" at the very farthest point to which they are carried, without "clipping" or rowing the first part of the stroke in the air. They must take the water also without "backing it, or throwing it towards the bow. They must leave the water at the end of the stroke without "slivering," or pulling water up as they are taken out; that is, the blades must take and leave the water so that the least possible retardation shall be given to the onward movement of the boat, or, as it is sometimes said, they must be put in and taken out " clean " and " smooth."

Position of Stroke.

Position of "Stroke."

After the blades are taken out of the water at the end of the stroke, they must be returned to the " full reach " again without touching the water; for the friction of dragging them along the surface tends to hold the boat back. The blades, of course, ought to be dipped together, taken out together, feathered together at a uniform height, and turned again ' together for another stroke. Again, there should be uniformity of movement inside the boat; indeed, unless there is such uniformity, there is little likelihood of uniformity of movement outside. The backs, therefore, of a crew that rows well will always be parallel, the legs will move simultaneously, and so will the seats, and the arms will be drawn in at the same time, the wrists dropped together at the finish of the stroke, the arms extended again at the same time, and the hands will be turned simultaneously on the full reach to begin the stroke. All these requirements are common to good crew shell-rowing, and, when lacking, are indications of a faulty stroke. But none of these faults, however, may belong to any one of several crews, no two of which are rowing the same stroke. There may be good rowing, therefore, under various styles of stroke. Still, some one must be adopted. When no other stroke has been adopted, the following may be used: Assuming the boat to be stationary and the oarsman to be at a "full reach," arms extended, back straightened from its lowest extremity and inclined, seat as far aft as it is intended to be moved, blade in the water turned for the stroke and just covered, the shoulders squared and held down and back, the neck and head in pro- longation of the back, the wrist of the hand next to the rowlock slightly convexed, and that hand resting diagonally upon the oar handle, the legs opened slightly, but symmetrically, enough to receive between the thighs the lower front part of the trunk, and the boat resting evenly upon the water, the stroke is begun by swaying the trunk back as though pivoted at the seat until it has reached the vertical position, then the legs are straightened out with vigor, the seat moving back with the shoulders, the hands being kept at such a height that the blade will remain just covered, until the seat has been moved toward the bow to its limit, and the trunk has swung just a trifle beyond the vertical. The stroke is finished by drawing in the arms until the hands touch the body, when, by dropping them a bit, and, at the same time slightly turning the wrist, the blade is taken out of the water. Care should be taken to keep the blade just covered in making this finish. To return to the "full reach" again the hands continue moving, and are shot out parallel with the surface of the water until the arms are straightened, the trunk is swung forward, and almost at the same time the seat is started aft, while the trunk continues to swing until everything gets to the "full reach" simultaneously and is ready to begin another stroke. Nothing but practice, of course, and the assistance of an experienced "coach," will enable a crew to row smoothly, gracefully, and effectively the stroke here attempted to be described. The separate parts of the stroke are given as though they were independent movements, instead of forming, as they do, one continuous but complicated movement. At the beginning of the stroke, or at the "catch" as it is called, the shoulders should be driven back vigorously and rapidly, care being taken not to make the motion a jerky one by burying the oar-blade too deeply, and thus stopping the movement of the shoulders. At the finish the most difficult part of the movement to be acquired is a rapid "shoot" of the arms away from the body, without a jarring motion by which the hands are either sent down into the lap with a violent thump, or else the shoulders are brought forward with a jerk. The "catch" and the "shoot" give no little trouble to beginners; but, when once mastered by a crew, it is believed that, other things being equal, no stroke without them is so effective. Every motion must be such as to waste no energy. After the arms are shot out, the trunk, which scarcely stops in changing direction, should not be rushed towards the "full reach," but should follow at a relatively moderate pace the "shoot" of the arms. Especially, care should be taken not to let the trunk drop down on the "full reach" with a jar or thump, and pains should be taken to have the hands high enough as they approach the "full reach" to bring the blade as close to the water as it can be brought, without "backing water," to begin the stroke.