BEFORE training comes the selection of men. Too great care cannot be taken that the members of a crew are, first, physically sound; and, second, anatomically fitted for rowing. Men whose organs are unsound, not only are likely to suffer themselves, but, when they break down, new men are taken in their places, and there is lost the unison of a crew - the result of weeks of preparation. The work must be done over, if there is time. If not, the crew is weakened to that extent. Men should have a suitable stature and suitable proportions. Men too tall or too short, men with extremely long or short arms or legs, conform only with great difficulty, if at all, to the movements of the rest of the crew. Men from five feet eight inches to six feet in height, and weighing, without clothing, from one hundred and fifty to one hundred and eighty-five pounds when in racing condition, are generally the best. There is, of course, great choice in fibre. Some consideration also should be given to temperament and disposition. A man should have resolution, spirit, good judgment, amiability, and equanimity. A good crew must be essentially harmonious, and this involves adaptability on the part of all of its members to each other. Boat-racing should not be undertaken, as a rule, by those under seventeen years of age; and it would be safer to begin at eighteen or even nineteen. The sport is a violent one, and is likely to be too exacting for persons in mid-youth. The organs are not then sufficiently powerful; and an arrested development, even if nothing more serious, may result.

Training involves the amounts and kinds of exercise, food and drink, sleep and bathing for the body, besides the occupation of the mind and its discipline.

And first of exercise: -

On the Machine

"On the Machine."

If the persons selected have the time at their disposal, it is always better, before beginning to row, to practise for a week or two several forms of exercise, for the purpose of strengthening certain muscles of the back and legs, as well as the wrist muscles, and to get the heart and lungs accustomed to greater activity. As the crew, which at this time should contain at least two more men than the number of oars to be pulled, must conform to the powers of its weakest member, and as it is not prudent to begin by taking a large amount of exercise, at first not over twenty minutes ought to be spent on gymnasium apparatus and in calisthenic exercises, and not over a mile ought to be covered in walking and running, three-quarters of which should be walking. This exercise ought to be gradually increased until thirty-five or forty minutes are spent in the gymnasium, and a run of a mile and a half at a pace of seven or eight miles an hour is taken.

The gymnasium exercises should consist of work on vertical bars, on wrist weights, to some extent on arm and chest weights, and in doing the military "setting up" exercises, such as are now prescribed for the army of the United States, especially the exercise which consists in lowering and raising the body by bending the legs at the knees, or "squatting." The gymnasium exercises ought to be done by all together at the word of command, both for the sake of acquiring uniformity of movement, and also of acquiring a habit of obedience. A crew is a machine. Its parts must fit each other, and the whole must start and move and stop as directed.

The Setting up Motion.

The " Setting-up" Motion.

These gymnasium exercises for the first two or three years of rowing should be kept up daily, until within about six weeks of a race, usually from ten to fifteen minutes being given to them, even after the actual rowing has begun; and the runs should be kept up until nearly as late a date. During the six weeks or thereabouts immediately preceding a race, a smart walk of a mile or more, according to the time available, ought to be substituted for the exercises and the running. For students and those whose vocations are sedentary, it is a good plan to take the walk immediately upon rising, and, while perspiring, follow it with a quick shower or plunge bath, and a rub-down before breakfast. If there is time, instead of this, a longer walk at a less rapid pace may be taken during the day. Overdoing, however, is to be avoided. What a given crew can do must be learned by experience; and individuals should be relieved, if it is found that they are doing too much. Especially as the day of the race approaches, care should be taken that no one is overtrained. If there is doubt, a given exercise had best be omitted.

The food should consist of meat and fish, vegetables, light puddings, and fruit; the drink of pure water, and good milk if wanted. Pastry, confections, alcoholic drinks, and tobacco should be prohibited. The food should be abundant and wholesome. Steaks, chops, or broiled chicken, with fish for breakfast; soup, fish, and a roast for dinner in the middle of the day; and a cold roast or breakfast dishes for supper. The roasts should not be overdone, but should be suitably cooked so as to retain the juices. The best of vegetables should be selected, and fruit in its season. The bread should be neither too fresh nor too stale. In short, all these articles of food should be prepared as they are at a first-class hotel. The best of good, wholesome food, and that in abundance, is needed. There ought to be no regret if weight is not lost, provided each man does his share of the work in the boat. Good food and plenty of exercise strengthen the muscles; and if this process is going on, an increase in weight is of little moment.

The 'Varsity Crew. (By permission of Pack Bros., New York, Cambridge, and New Haven.)

The 'Varsity Crew. (By permission of Pack Bros., New York, Cambridge, and New Haven.)