But this would equally be the case if the rise of acidity was produced by an acid containing no food elements whatever (see fig. 5); so that while I do not say that carbohydrates, oils and fats, have no effect on nutrition, and am not discussing their effects on the production of force in other forms, such as heat, I do say that their effect on the production of force and activity, and the excretion of urea, is slight and indirect, and may for the present be neglected, with the object of making clearer and more useful our knowledge of the effects of the albumens.

In so far as I propose to point out that those, who are free from great excess of uric acid in the blood, are also free from the above-described more severe and intractable form of fatigue (Physiology And Pathology Of Fatigue), I must at the same time not forget to mention that the difference between those who suffer and those who do not suffer, is one of degree only, and that all have some uric acid in the blood, and are similarly influenced by acids and other drugs which clear it out of the circulation.

In those who have no available excess of uric acid in the body and blood, an acid, or an acid-forming food, introduced into the stomach will at once be absorbed and clear out any uric acid there may be in the blood; but in those who are full of uric acid from head to foot, digestion and absorption are as much upset by the large quantity of uric acid in the blood, as is muscular circulation, skin circulation and general metabolism, and then the condition is difficult or impossible to cure, as food and drugs introduced into the stomach may quite fail to be absorbed; uric acid collaemia is a curable condition in the one case, but more or less incurable in the other, at least for a time.

I have also pointed out in "Uric Acid," that by watching urea excretion during exercise it is possible to tell at once whether fatigue (Physiology And Pathology Of Fatigue) is coming early, and whether that fatigue is due to excess of uric acid; for exercise generally causes, as we have seen, a rise of urea; but if there is much uric acid in the blood, the beginning of the exercise will lead to a fall of urea in place of a rise, and then more or less severe fatigue soon comes on.

Now this fatigue (Physiology And Pathology Of Fatigue) can be prevented, as I am going to show, by means of suitable diet providing the necessary albumens, without the unnecessary uric acid, and it can, as already pointed out in "Uric Acid," be prevented by previously clearing out all the available uric acid; e.g. by a course of salicylate which is left off on the day of exercise, or by giving acids, mercury, etc., to temporarily clear the blood at the time of exercise; in fact it matters not how you clear the blood of uric acid, so long as you do clear it, and keep it clear during the exercise.

It has also been pointed out that exercise brings excess of uric acid into the blood by causing the elimination of acids in perspiration; thus diminishing the acidity of the urine and increasing the alkalinity of the blood; thus rendering it a better solvent of uric acid, so that it will dissolve more of the uric acid available in the tissues.

In a word, exercise acts like a dose of alkali, and reverses the effects which we have seen to be produced by acids, hence in those who have plenty of available uric acid, heat and fatigue (Physiology And Pathology Of Fatigue) are contemporaneous, and almost synonymous; but in those who are free from excess of uric acid, heat and perspiration have little or no bad effect.

Hence the records we are now getting from all sides show that the less animal flesh a people take the better do they come out in trials of force production, and especially in endurance. As regards force production, those having equivalent quantities of albumen available from any source, animal or vegetable, will be equal to each other: but in endurance those will do best who get their albumens from such animal and vegetable sources as are practically free from uric acid, and who do not indulge in such stimulant poisons as tea, coffee, and other similar alkaloid-containing substances.

Now so far as I know the "vegetarians" of this country are pretty decidedly superior in endurance to those who feed on animal tissues, and who might otherwise be expected to equal them; but these "vegetarians" would be better still, as I have for some years been pointing out, if they not only ruled out animal flesh, but also eggs, and the pulses (peas, beans and lentils) which contain a large amount of uric acid, or substances physiologically equivalent to uric acid; also tea, coffee, and cocoa.

It also follows absolutely from what I have said, that meat is a stimulant because of the acid salts it contains, for uric acid itself is a stimulant, as may be demonstrated for anyone by swallowing a few grains of it, and it is the chief stimulant in beef-tea soups and meat extracts, and other deadly decoctions of flesh. Meat also contains a supply of easily digested albumens, and the effect of swallowing animal flesh is, that digestion is stimulated and circulation improved by the acids and acid salts, so that the albumens are quickly digested and rendered available; as the result of these two causes, the happy owner of a portion of flesh is sooner in a position to evolve large quantities of force than the man who gets his albumen - perhaps exactly the same in amount - from a less stimulating source.

But there is another side to this picture, for in so far as this effect of flesh is due to stimulation, that stimulation will come to an end, just as we see in fig. 5 that the rise of urea after an acid comes to an end, and is followed by a fall which is rapid and decided, and as the albumens of flesh are thus rapidly available, it follows that, other things, such as quantity, being equal, the albumens provided from flesh are more quickly available, but also more quickly worked off and dissipated, than those having a less stimulating origin in cheese or vegetables; though a somewhat similar effect can be produced by eating acid fruits and vegetables along with cheese, milk, etc.