It follows from this that a meal of meat, as compared with a meal, of say milk, cheese and bread, equally rich in albumens, is like the force in an explosive oil, as compared with the same amount of force in a slow burning oil.

And the man who has dined on flesh, though possibly more lively and energetic at first, will find himself at the end of both his stimulation and his available albumens, and faced by rapidly falling urea and increasing fatigue (Physiology And Pathology Of Fatigue), some time before his opponent, who got a precisely similar allowance of albumen from other sources.

Stimulation is not strength, but force rendered a little more quickly available; and it is always followed (and must be so) by an exactly corresponding amount of depression, when the force used up is not available, and has to be replaced.

The man also who had the meat and had his blood temporarily cleared of uric acid as the result of its acid stimulation, has not got rid of that uric acid; but it is waiting in his body and will return in increased quantity into his blood as soon as the rise of acidity and stimulation comes to an end; hence this man may, some time before his next meal, have an excess of uric acid in his blood and suffer from fatigue (Physiology And Pathology Of Fatigue) as a result of this also, while his milk, cheese, and bread eating opponent, having less uric acid to return into his blood, will escape.

I think that this action of meat, as a stimulant and producer of quickly worked off force, has a good deal to say to the fact that, as we have come to eat more and more meat, we have also come to have a larger and larger number of meals in the day; and now while the bread, cheese and vegetable feeder can do well on two, or at most three, meals a day, the flesh feeders often take four, or perhaps five.

It follows also, that quite an exaggerated and erroneous estimate has been formed of the power of meat to produce force, because its stimulating effect has been mistaken for power, and the depression which follows has either been overlooked, which is possible at first, or later, has been counteracted by alcohol, tobacco and other more harmful stimulants; but the man who gets his albumens from a less stimulating source, having no early stimulation, has also no subsequent depression, and so probably never feels the want of any alcohol at all.

Hence it comes about that those who took alcohol on a flesh diet generally very soon give it up when they give up flesh, and smoke also very little, having no craving for any stimulant; while if what most meat-eaters say was true, namely that meat is very much better nourishment and more supporting than milk, bread, cheese, fruit and vegetables, it ought to be exactly the other way, and those who live on the latter foods should require to take alcohol, and be unable to do without it.

Another very common effect of meat eating, whether alcohol is added to it or not, is a certain amount of dullness, heaviness and disinclination for mental or bodily exertion in the morning hours, often associated with more or less irritability and mental depression.

In fact the meat eater is never quite himself or to be seen at his best till the evening, when rising acidity clears his blood for a time from excess of uric acid; and this is, I think, at least one of the factors that has caused our morning and evening hours to grow progressively later and later, as we have come to live more in towns, and eat more meat.

It is misery to rise in the morning hours if you feel dull, depressed, and unrefreshed; it is a pleasure to prolong the evening conviviality when you feel bright, and by contrast even cheerful. Few or none realise that a multitude of such minor sorrows are the direct results of their habits of life.

We see then, that there are two forms of fatigue (Physiology And Pathology Of Fatigue), one due to absence of albumens from the blood, because albuminous foods are deficient, and one due to absence of albumens from the muscular tissues, because, though there is plenty of albumen in the blood, the blood is unable to get to the tissues; both forms of fatigue (Physiology And Pathology Of Fatigue) are really due to the defective supply of albumens to the tissues, but the latter kind is complicated by the additional source of weakness that, the circulation being defective, waste products are not removed from the tissues, but remain to further hinder their function and nutrition.

Thus in the walking race to be mentioned further on, in which the vegetarians are said to have walked the meat-eaters off their legs, food was open to and partaken of by both alike: but the meat-eaters had impure blood so that they could neither digest the albumens, nor get them to their tissues when digested; and so they failed not from defective supply but from obstructed circulation. Further, the vegetable-feeders came in fresh and in good condition, and the winner asserted that he could have gone faster if necessary; but the only meat-eater who came in at all required brandy to revive him.

We have also seen that by means of diet it is possible to prevent completely the latter form of fatigue (Physiology And Pathology Of Fatigue), leaving the individual who thus controls his diet liable only to that form of fatigue which is due to deficient albumen, from deficient or irregular food supplies.

I have for years been pointing out in "Uric Acid" that other things, such as nutrition and the supply of albumens, being equal, I can absolutely control the incidence of fatigue (Physiology And Pathology Of Fatigue) by controlling the uric acid; that I can prevent fatigue for many hours, in spite of great heat and exertion, either by sweeping out beforehand most of the available uric acid by means of a solvent such as a salicylate, or by clearing the blood directly by means of drugs such as acids, opium or mercury, which clear the blood of uric acid by interfering with its solubility, which is the way in which meat acts as a stimulant. I have also pointed out that these methods have been used probably for thousands and thousands of years by those who had no exact knowledge of their mode of action, e.g., opium for fatigue (Physiology And Pathology Of Fatigue) of men and horses in India, and lemons, etc., by athletes on this side of the world; and I have come across several individuals who had similarly made use of mercury, or more recently of salicylates, for their effects on their mental or bodily powers. I have also pointed out that exactly the same effects can be produced by clearing the blood of uric acid by means of diet, and have said that in my own case while on ordinary flesh diet I might often be placed hors de combat in half an hour or an hour by exposure to heat and exertion, on a uric acid free diet, I can confidently reckon on being able to produce large amounts of force for at least three or four hours, in spite of any heat that we meet with in this country; and I have pointed out that abstainers from flesh all over the world have had similar experiences, and not infrequently get the better of flesh-eating opponents from this cause.

I have pointed oat that the fatigue (Physiology And Pathology Of Fatigue) which is produced by a rush of uric acid into the blood is accompanied by an immediate fall of urea, while exercise without such uric acid in the blood and without fatigue, is accompanied by an immediate rise of urea; and no doubt it would thus be quite easy to tell from the urea excretion of two athletic competitors, which was going to fail first.

In myself also the rise and fall of urea, as shown in the previous figures, is most accurately represented in one's feelings of strength or weakness; so that over and over again it has occurred to me in making these and similar curves, to write down my feelings at the time and to find afterwards, when the urine had been collected and estimated and the urea worked out, that these feelings had quite accurately represented the changes taking place in the excretion of urea; and anyone who will note his own feelings during such a change in the excretion of urea, as is shown in fig. 1 from 1.0 p.m. to 3.0 p.m., will have no difficulty in understanding this.

I have now also no doubt that the severe collapse and asthenia, that follows on attacks of gastric dyspepsia or gastritis from any cause, is due to a stoppage of the digestion and absorption of albumens, producing a corresponding fall in the production of force and urea, and the latter would be found in all such cases, if the urine was collected and examined.

Similarly an injury to any part of the body which suffices to cause serious interference with gastric digestion will produce similar asthenia and fall of urea, and it follows also from our first principles, that in flesh-eaters such fall of urea will be the signal for the rush of uric acid into the blood, and this will still further hamper and impede digestion, circulation and nutrition in all directions, giving rise to the more serious and fatal complications of shock.

It follows from this, also, that abstainers from flesh and tea will have, as compared with flesh-eaters and tea-drinkers, a certain relative immunity from shock after injury, and its more severe and fatal results; and this is, I think, as shown by cases quoted in "Uric Acid" (pp. 365 and 779), a matter of common observation.

It seems, then, that there is overwhelming evidence to prove that fatigue (Physiology And Pathology Of Fatigue) or its absence is simply a matter of the adequate supply of albumen to the muscles, and that this in turn is controlled by two factors:- (1) a satisfactory and sufficient supply of albumens in the blood, and (2) a free circulation of this blood through the tissues to furnish the albumen as required, and remove waste products.

We see also that diet places both these factors under our control, and that the excretion of urea is a reliable guide to the results it produces.