THIS picture was taken from the sideline and despicts a punt, but who would know it? Contrast with plate VI. It is used first, to confirm the author's statements to the effect that the sidelines are no place from which to see the game and to bring out the advantages of being in an elevated position, fro other photographs, except one, were taken.

'For many years ' " pictures were taken' from, the level of the ground and for this reason were aterest to the spectator or of value to the coach and player.

Since the erection of the modern stadia and especially since the introduction of the lens great strides have been made in photography, which is now used for coaching purposes.

The plates shown in this book are selected by the author from a collection used for this purpose at Harvard University, to which acknowledgment is made for the courtesy in allowing their reproduction here.

Yale vs. Harvard 1921.

At other times, when the forthcoming forward pass and the apparent receiver are patent to him, by following the receiver, who in reality is simply a decoy, he is enticed away from the locality where the pass will be caught by another and real receiver. That plays of this nature may not be consistently successful the defense, although sacrificing material strength on the line of scrimmage by so doing, are rapidly learning to withdraw their center some five yards from the line and thus support the wing halfback in question, under such conditions as described.

This man who occupies the center position is well worth watching, individually, for he is called upon, against close running plays, to cope with the rugged work in the line. He must be fast enough to render immediate support to both tackle and end if playing as a rush line halfback, and under certain systems he must be sufficiently wise to control correctly the entire scheme of defense. In this respect, whether under his direction or not, the defense are governed by the same principles which determine the offensive strategy. We have learned that the offense quarterback is constantly influenced in his choice of plays by the down and distance to be gained, that if on fourth down there is but a scant yard to go for first down he will most likely rush and presumably use a plunging type of play. If third down and more than five yards to go he will tend towards the use of the forward pass. But if on fourth down and ten yards to go, unless some unusual circumstances exist, he will order a punt or else look forward to a bad half hour with an enraged coach.

Conversely, the defense are trained in the same line of thought, so that whatever formation the offense assume, the defense not only respond with the proper theoretical formations, but direct their main attention towards coping with the kind of play (kick, rush, or pass) the offense will probably employ.

Reference to the diagrams shows the usual variations of defense, but all teams do not assume the positions as drawn, so that the spectator should be constantly alert in noting the defensive formations, particularly when the offense threaten to punt. See if the defense respond by placing one or two men back to receive the kick. The main reason why they do not always put two men at full distance is for fear of a forward pass into a zone some ten to fifteen yards directly back from the line of scrimmage. A player is sorely needed at this point when a play of this nature is executed. On the other hand, one man alone against a punt cannot cover the width of the field, and an accurate punter will always take advantage of this fact by placing his kicks to one side. Or, should the punt come to him on the fly and he muff it, none of his side are near enough to render immediate assistance in recovering the ball. The spectator should realize that this "handling" of punts is of the most vital importance to the defense. Under the most favorable conditions it is an extremely difficult feat, but when the catcher is pitted against a spiral punt with wind and sun to complicate matters and fully aware that the instant he catches the ball there will be two or three opponents ready to bang him to the ground, know that it takes skill and a stout heart to combat this play successfully during the full hour's play.

If a muff does occur and the offense recover, it constitutes what is termed a "Break," that is, when the usual scheme of play is marred by an error of commission or omission of one of the players. As has been stated it is mistakes of this kind which often win or lose a football game. Perhaps the worst break which can happen against a team is for the opponents to block a punt and recover the ball. It is not only the actual distance lost, but the psychological effect upon the offending team which plays such havoc.

Another type of break occurs when a team is gaining steadily and as they are approaching the enemy's goal (or third down) are penalized for holding It often happens that the rush during which this infraction occurred gained a good ten yards and would have made a first down. Instead, the offending team is set back fifteen yards and the down remains the same, so that instead of first down on the opponent's fifteen yard line it is now third down on their forty yard line with twenty-five yards to gain. Thus the opportunity of scoring has been completely wiped out by the mistake of one individual.

Intercepted forward passes are the most spectacular form of break, because the play, from being a near success, sometimes results in utter disaster. It is because of this "boomerang" effect that the offense use the forward pass so sparingly in their own territory.

At every game of football there sits, usually within earshot, an individual who persists in venting his feelings against the players on the field by a continuous line of "chatter." His creed appears to be that if his team gains or prevents their opponents from gaining, all is well. But when one of his team apparently misses a tackle, he sums up the situation by the word "rotten." That man, and, thank Heaven, this kind of person is confined to the male gender, either has never played football himself, or else is ignorant of the fact that tackles have been, are, and will be missed as long as football is played. Further, he fails to discern that most tackles are missed, not through the clumsiness of the would-be tackler, but through the cleverness of the runner. On another occasion when our interferers fail to "clean up" the opposing end rush, he caustically remarks "pretty bum attempt," not in the least recognizing that the end in question had by the use of his hands on the interferers' bodies, succeeded in ridding himself of them and, by a superb tackle, downed the runner for a loss. The lesson he should learn, then, is to give credit when and where it properly belongs.

A penalty for holding is incurred by our team. The referee, with ball in hand, starts pacing off fifteen yards. "Robber!" yells our sportsmanlike neighbor. Aside from his unseemly remark, he is evidently ignorant of the fact that it is the umpire who inflicts penalties of this nature and that in this case, the referee is simply carrying out the verdict of the umpire. Be it known, then, that the main duties of the referee have to do with the movement of the ball, while those of the umpire, assisted by the field judge, have jurisdiction over the conduct of the players. The decisions of the officials are always given honestly and, in the great majority of cases, correctly. Booing or complaining of their actions has no place in any amateur sport, albeit that it seems to have become a privilege for the frenzied fan at professional baseball games.