Range. - Northern North America, breeding north of the United States boundary, and wintering south to Virginia and southern California.

The male of this species is entirely black, except for the white patches on the forehead and nape, and the vari-colored bill of black, white, pink and yellow. They nest either along the coast or in the interior, building a nest lined with down, in the marsh grass bordering small ponds. They lay from five to eight buffy cream colored eggs. Size 2.40 x 1.70. The females of all the Scoters are a dingy brownish color, but show the characteristic marking of the species, although the white is generally dull or sometimes mottled. Data. - Mackenzie River, June 25, 1894. Six eggs in a nest of down on an island in the river.

166 Surf Scoter Oidemia Perspicillata 292166 Surf Scoter Oidemia Perspicillata 293Surf Scoter White winged Scoter

Surf Scoter. White-winged Scoter.