Range. - Great Plains, breeding from northern United States to the Saskatchewan.

This species is similar to the eastern Towhee but has the scapulars and coverts tipped with white. They nest abundantly in suitable localities in Montana and North Dakota and more commonly north of our borders. Like the eastern Towhee, they nest on the ground under the protection of overhanging bushes, the nests being made of strips of bark and grasses and lined with fine rootlets. Their three or four eggs, which are laid during May, June or July, are pinkish white, profusely speckled with reddish brown; very similar to those of the eastern Towhee. Size .92 x .70.

Pinkish white

Pinkish white.

588a. Spurred Towhee. Pipilo Maculatus Montanus

Range. - Breeds from Mexico to British Columbia, west of the Rockies.

Similar to the last but with less white on the back. The nesting habits and eggs are like those of the Towhee, but in some localities the nests are most often found in bushes above the ground.

588a Spurred Towhee Pipilo Maculatus Montanus 1170NEST AND EGGS OF TOWHEE


588a Spurred Towhee Pipilo Maculatus Montanus 1172


588b. Oregon Towhee. Pipilo Maculatus Oregonus

Range. - Pacific coast from California to British Columbia; winters to Mexico. Similar to the last but with still fewer white markings on the back and the chestnut flanks brighter. The nesting habits and eggs of this variety differ in no essential particular from those of the preceding Towhees.

588c. San Clemente Towhee. Pipilo Maculatus Elements

Range. - San Clemente Is. and other of the Santa Barbara group.

Black of male said to be duller. Probably no difference between the eggs and others.

588d. San Diego Towhee. Pipilo Maculatus Mega-Lonyx

Range. - Coast of southern California and Lower California. Said to be darker than megalonyx.

588e. Large-Billed Towhee. Pipilo Maculatus Magnirostris

Range. - Southern Lower California. Similar to arcticus; bill said to be larger.