Aperients, opening medicines, or purges, by which several names this class of medicines is known, are constantly required by the dog, though it is a great mistake to give them when they are not absolutely demanded by the necessity of the case. All act by quickening the ordinary muscular action of the bowels, but some also stimulate the lining membrane to pour out large quantities of watery fluid, and others either directly or indirectly compel the liver to increase its secretion of bile. Hence they arc often classed in corresponding divisions, as laxatives, drastic purgatives, etc. The chief of these drugs used, in the dog-kennel are aloes, colo-cynth, rhubarb, jalap, ipecacuanha, senna, calomel, and blue pill, all of which act more or less on the liver; while Epsom salts, castor oil, and croton oil open the bowels without any such effect Syrup of buckthorn is commonly given, but has little effect; and, indeed, the syrup of red poppies is generally substituted for it by the druggist, who seldom keeps the genuine article, from the belief that it is ineffectual.

A mild bolus:

11. - Barbadoes aloes, 10 to 15 grains. Powdered jalap, 5 to 8 grains. Ginger, 2 or 3 grains. Soap, 10 grains.

Mix into one bolus for a large dog, or divide into two or three for small ones, and give as required.

Strong bolus:

12. - Calomel, 8 to 5 grains. Jalap, 10 to 20 grains.

Mix with syrup, and give as a bolus.

A good common aperient, when the liver is sluggish:

13. - Podopnyllin, 1/2 grain.

Compound extract of colocynth, 12 to 18 grains. Powdered rhubarb, 8 to 5 grains. Oil of cloves, 2 drops.

Mix, and give as a bolus to a large strong dog, or divide into two or three for smaller dogs.

Very strong purgative when there is an obstruction:

14 - Croton oil, 1 to 2 drops.

Purified opium, 1 to 2 grains. Linseed meal, 10 grains. Mix the meal with boiling water into a thick paste, then add the oil and spices, and give as a bolus.

Ordinary castor oil mixture:

15. - Castor oil, 8 ounces.

Syrup of buckthorn, 2 ounces. Syrup of poppies, 1 ounce.

Mix, and give a tablespoonful to a medium-sized dog.

Very strong purgative mixture:

16. - Jalap, 10 grains.

Epsom salts, 2 drachms. Subcarbonate of soda, 10 grains. Infusion of senna, 1 ounce. Tincture of senna, 2 drachms. Tincture of ginger, 15 drops.

Mix, and give as a drench. For a small dog, give one half, one third, or one quarter, according to size.

A purgative clyster:

17. - Castor oil, 1/2 ounce.

Spirits of .turpentine, 2 to 8 drachms. Common salt, 1/2 ounce. Gruel, 6 to 8 ounces.

Mix all together, and inject carefully per anum.