A valuable special article, written by Harry W. Lacy, editor American Fancier, for this book:
There is such a vast difference in the constitution, purpose and environment of different breeds that each one must be regarded in a different light. A lapdog leading a sedentary life must not be fed like a setter, nor a bulldog like a hard-worked hound. So it is in training. Each breed must be approached according to its natural vocation.
There should be no trouble in raising most of the puppies, and the point that most inexperienced people fail to realize is that the puppy organism is a comparatively delicate one, requiring considerable care.
The most delicate time in a puppy's life is from the fifth or sixth week - the time of weaning - until at least the third month - it is between these ages that most puppies are sold. Up to the age of weaning the pup has been reared exclusively by its mother, and it is during the time following this period, when the youngster is having a change of food, that it is subject to a variety of ills. To start at the beginning, the pup you have selected is either a nervous littte thing, needing reassurance, or a cheeky brat, that needs suppressing from fche first. You will know which variety you have got the instant the lid of the box is off and the pup finds himself in a strange place. The few hours on the journey have been trying ones. Taken from his dam and friends and set down amid the noise of strange sounds, he often has a case of nerves. But the dog above all is a gregarious creature and if properly approached he will make himself at home.
The moment the puppy arrives is the time to take possession of the field. For at least a week the utmost vigilance is required. If care be taken to prevent him from erring in that first week, he will know his position and limitations at once. But if he be allowed to own the house it will mean months of arduous and discouraging work later to subdue him. If the pup shows signs of fear at first, caress him a little just to get up his nerve, but be careful to have him alone, as there is nothing so disconcerting to the infant as to be pounced upon by a lot of strangers. When he shows signs of "coming to" let him have a few moments exercise in the yard by himself. The air will benefit him after confinement and it will give him an opportunity to answer the imperative calls' of puppy nature.
After a slight investigation and a few turns around the yard the pup will regain his nerves and be ready for a feed - most of them are constantly thinking of their stomachs when awake. Be careful to make his meal very frugal, as it is always unwise to feed while the pup is in a state of excitement, or immediately after strenuous exercise. I would recommend a little "puppy biscuit" - which can be procured at any of the pet shops - cracked up fine and softened with hot water. A little pure gravy or meat soup-stock, free from grease, added will prove very tempting, but if he will take the biscuit alone it is just as well to omit the gravy, until you are sure the pup is healthy. Pups, like babies, have extremely delicate interior plumbing, and if that can be kept in order until they are well started on their growth there should be no difficulty.
After feeding procure a solid beef bone - not too large for the dog to handle with ease - with nothing on it but a bit of tooth gristle, and let him take it to his bed and be quiet. There is no solace so sweet as a good bone. Left alone he will soon devote his time to the bone and gnaw himself asleep. And if undisturbed he will awaken with a kindly disposition towards his surroundings. The next step in order is to introduce him with as little disturbance as possoble to the members of the family. These things look trivial on the face, but they save a vast amount of confusion In the puppy mind and a deal of trouble to the owner.
One particular reason for avoiding excitement is that very small puppies have little self-control, and a sudden fright, or even surprise, will result in the spoiling of a good carpet and this accident will render house-breaking very difficult. A very important problem to decide at once is whether or not the dog is to be raised inside the house. It is very dangerous to allow a young dog to sleep one night in a warm room and the next to lie out in the cold. A house dog is much more delicate than one raised outside, not only on account of being tender through the comforts of artificial heat, but from a deficient coat.
If the dog is to live inside have his bed in one place and make him use it. If he is to live outside, prepare a warm box which is water tight and fill it well with clean straw. Rye straw will keep a dog almost as clean as washing. Scrupulously avoid rags or old carpets, as they hold the dirt and dampness, and are consequently unhealthy. It is wise to raise the kennel several inches from the ground, as it allows a free circulation of the air and prevents dampness. In cold weather the kennel should be as small as comfort will permit, as the heat of the body san raise it to a better temperature than a larger one. But whether your puppy is to live inside or out, make the decision at once and put him in his place as soon as possible. If he be destined to live outside take every precaution to have the kennel sheltered and dry. After a feed and a sleep the dog will accommodate himself to his surroundings, and it is always best to initiate him into his regular routine as soon as he enters a new home. This is imperative.
Dogs, especially when young, are largely creatures of habit, and it is therefore of the greatest importance to start them right. Bad habits are formed so quickly and are so difficult to break, that with puppies a negative course must be pursued for a short time - at least until the idea of obedience is learned. Before teaching your dogs tricks, devote your time to the installing in his mind the fact that he is your companion, but that you are always master. For a week or ten days keep him in the straight and narrow path that leadeth to dogdom. This is not a difficult task. It requires attention and patience, but in no case is the old saying, "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure" truer than in the training of dogs. Every successful breeder knows this. By cleanliness, proper feeding and exercise he prevents disease, or at least reduces it to a minimum. By beginning training early he prevents the development of bad habits. It is just as important for the house pet to be guarded with the same care. Don't allow your new puppy privileges on his arrival that will be forbidden later. If he is not fed at the table he will not have to be chastised for being a nuisance when his presence is undesirable. Above all, if you would save your pet from the many disorders common to young puppies and from untold suffering, refrain from feeding cake and sweetmeats, and scrupulously guard his stomach.