Passing from these, the more common, we may consider other and less frequent causes of the disease. Congestion of the laminal blood-vessels and consequent laminitis occurs when animals are made to maintain a standing position for prolonged periods, as, for instance, when making sea voyages. A long and painful disease of one foot, necessitating the whole of the weight being borne by the other, ends often in laminitis of the second member. It may thus occur as a sequel to quittor, complicated sand-crack, suppurating corn, and punctured wounds of the feet.

Laminitis has also been known to occur as a result of septic infection of the blood-stream consequent on the operation of castration. (See recorded case, No. 2, p. 281.)

A sudden lowering of the surface circulation at a time when the animal is excessively perspiring is also said to favour an attack, as also is the giving to drink of cold water to an animal just in from a long and tiring journey. Also, according to Zundel, 'the influence of the season cannot be denied, and it is during the summer months that laminitis is more frequent, while it is rare in winter, as well as in the spring and autumn.'

Further, laminitis has been described as occurring when the animal is at grass, and when all causes - at any rate, active ones - have appeared to be absent. (See reported case, No. 3, p. 282.)

Regarding heredity, we may safely say that, as a cause of laminitis, it may be almost totally disregarded. That a bad form of foot, either a flat-foot or a foot with heels contracted, and already thus affected with a mild type of inflammation, did not offer a certain predisposition, we should not like to assert. There must, however, be an exciting cause - namely, a poisoned condition of the blood-stream. This latter cannot, of course, be in any way regarded as hereditary.

In short, the dietetic cause is by far the most common, and, in prosecuting inquiries as to the starting-point of an attack, the veterinarian's attention should be directed in the main to that particular.

Symptoms. - Laminitis is always ushered in by a set of symptoms indicative of a high state of fever. The pulse is raised from the normal to as many as 80 or 90 a minute, muscular tremors are in evidence, the respirations are short and hurried, and the temperature rises to 105°, 106°, or 107° F. The visible mucous membranes are injected, that of the eye, in addition to the hyperaemia, often tinged a dirty yellow. The mouth is dry and hot, the urine scanty, and the bowels frequently torpid. As yet, however, the walk is sound.

Called in during this early stage, the veterinarian is often puzzled as to the exact significance of the symptoms. Enteritis, lymphangitis, or pneumonia he knows to be often heralded in the same manner. In this connection, Zundel says: 'Laminitis, in most instances, is preceded by certain general symptoms, such as are premonitory of the invasions of ordinary inflammatory diseases, but of an uncertain significance.'

So far we agree with him, but to what we have already said we would add that, even in this early stage, there is an additional symptom, unmentioned by Zundel, which often leads one to an exact diagnosis. The feet are in turn lifted a short distance from the ground, and almost immediately replaced. This movement ('paddling,' we may term it) is constant, the animal appearing to obtain ease in no one position for more than a few moments at a time.

Seen but a few hours later, when the swelling caused by the hyperaemia and outpouring of the inflammatory exudate has led to compression of the sensitive structures within the horny box, the symptoms presented admit of no misreading, save by the most casual and careless observer. The patient now stands as though fixed to the ground. The pulse is hard and frequent, the respirations tremendously increased in number, the body wet with a patchy perspiration, and the countenance indicative of the most acute suffering. Only with difficulty, and often only at the instigation of the whip, can the animal be induced to move. This he does by throwing his weight, so far as he is able, on to the heels of the feet affected, and putting the feet slowly forward in a shuffling and feeling manner. The feet themselves give to the hand a sensation of abnormal heat, percussion upon them with the hammer is followed by painful attempts at withdrawal, while any effort we may make to remove one foot from the ground is useless, so great an aversion does the animal show to placing a greater weight upon the opposite foot.

According as the front-feet alone, the hind-feet alone, or all four feet are affected, the symptoms will vary.

With all four feet diseased, the animal stands with the two front-feet extended in front of him, while the hind-limbs are at the same time propped as far beneath him as is possible. The horse is, in fact, standing upon the extreme hindermost portions of the feet.

Why the animal should thus distribute his weight is easily explained. Standing in the normal position, the body-weight is borne by the sensitive laminae, the sole, of course, sharing in the burden, but the laminae taking by far the greater part of the pressure thus exerted. With the vessels of the laminae gorged with blood, and the laminal connective tissue infiltrated with a profuse inflammatory exudate, the most excruciating pain is bound to result by reason of the compression of the diseased tissues within the non-yielding structures. In some little measure the suffering animal may afford himself relief by partly removing pressure from the fore-parts of the hoof. When placing the body-weight behind, the pressure, instead of falling upon the highly sensitive laminae, is directed to the follicular and fatty tissues of the plantar cushion: from there, with only a small portion of the sensitive sole intervening, to the horny frog, and from thence to the ground.

The same distribution of weight also places the foot in a position of greatest expansion, thus, by giving greater room to the diseased parts, again affording relief of pressure on the inflamed lamina, while it at the same time relieves of weight the foremost portions of the sensitive sole.