Changes in the Internal Structures. - It follows as a matter of course that the changes we have described in the form of the hoof itself carry with them alterations in the bones and sensitive structures beneath it. The tissues, as a whole, become atrophied. The os pedis becomes deformed, loses its circular shape, and gradually becomes more or less oval in contour. At the same time, its structure becomes more compact, the cribriform appearance of its anterior and lateral faces more or less destroyed, and the few remaining openings apparently increased in size. This atrophy of the os pedis is best noted at the wings.

In the plantar cushion the effects of the atrophy are noted in the smallness of the organ, in its becoming whiter in colour than normal, and more resistant to pressure.

The coronary cushion is also affected in the same way, where the changes are noted most in its posterior portions.

A further effect of the narrowing of the heels, and their consequent tendency to drop downwards, is the exertion of a continual pressure on the sensitive sole. In course of time, and especially in flat feet, this leads to the appearance of corns.

The navicular bone and bursa and the tendon of the perforans also suffer from the effects of compression. The movement of the tendon is restricted, and arterial supply to the adjacent structures rendered deficient. The tissues of the bone and bursa are insufficiently nourished, and the secretion of synovia lessened. In this way it is conceivable that navicular disease may follow the condition of simple contracted heels.

In common with the other structures, the lateral cartilages also suffer from the continual pressure. Their blood-supply is lessened, their functions interfered with, and side-bones result.

Causes. - Upon the causation of contraction a very great deal has been written, both by early veterinarians and by those of the present day. Many and widely differing opinions have been advanced, but a careful résumé of only a few will lead one to certain fixed conclusions.

We may consider the causes of contraction under two headings - predisposing and exciting.

Predisposing Causes of Contraction. - Among these we will first mention heredity, although it is possible it should not be deemed of so great account as it is by some. That the shape of certain feet, especially those with low heels and abnormally sloping walls, predisposes to contraction no one will deny. So long, however, as the animal goes unshod, so long does the foot maintain a normal condition of the heels. In other words, it is not until the tendency to contraction already there is aggravated by careless shoeing and the effects of work that it operates to any noticeable extent.

The degree of contraction will also be very largely governed by the amount of the development of the frog. With a frog of good size, low down, and taking part in the pressure of the foot on the ground, contraction will be prevented. On the other hand, an ill-developed frog, one wasted by long-continued and spreading thrush, or one robbed of its normal function by excessive paring in the forge, is a common starting-point of the condition we are considering. We have already referred to this in Chapter III (General Physiological And Anatomical Observations)., when considering the experiments of Lungwitz in this connection. What we have to bear in mind in these experiments is that the application of a pad to the frog, in such a manner that effective ground-pressure is obtained, results always in a marked expansion of the heels, and that, with counter-pressure with the ground absent, expansion occurs to little or no extent. This is proof positive of the enormous part the frog plays in maintaining an open and elastic condition of the heels - a fact so insisted on by Coleman.

It is worthy of mention, however, that loss of the frog's function does not operate to nearly so serious an extent in horses with high, upright heels as in those with the heels low and excessively sloping.

In illustrating this, Mr. Dollar, in his work on shoeing, mentions the case of a pair of trotting horses of similar age, size, and weight, each having weak fore-heels. In one case the hoofs were flat, in the other upright. The horse with the flat hoofs suffered from contraction, while the other did not.

The reason appears to be that in the animal with upright hoofs the proportion of body-weight borne by the heels is considerably less than in those with the hoofs flat and sloping.

Certain conditions of the horn-producing membranes also predispose to contraction. For example, in horses reared on marshy soils, and afterwards transferred to standing in town stables, we find that a dry and brittle condition of the horn supervenes. This we may regard as a low form of laminitis, brought about by the heat of the material upon which the animal is standing, and the congestion of the feet engendered by his enforced standing for long periods in one position, as opposed to the more or less continuous exercise when at pasture. With the hoof in this condition it loses by evaporation the moisture that normally it should contain, and, as we might expect, a certain degree of contraction of its structure is the inevitable result.

We thus see that contraction brought about in this way is not so much caused by the heat of the stable, as it is by the decreased ability of the horn to retain its own moisture.

On the other hand, it cannot be denied that excessive warmth and dryness combined tend also to an undue abstraction of moisture, even from the horn of the healthy foot; and this explains in great measure how it is that lameness, as a rule, and especially that proceeding from contracted heels, is far more frequent and of greater intensity in the hot, dry months of summer, than in the cooler and more humid atmosphere of winter. It is interesting to note, too, that an alternation of humidity and dryness is far more liable to injure the quality of the horn and tend to its contraction than the long-continued effects of dryness alone. A common illustration of this is to be found in the effects of the ordinary poultice. Everyone knows that when, after a few days' application, they are discontinued, we get as a result an abnormally dry and brittle state of the horn. This is doubtless due to the poultice removing the thin, varnish-like, and protective pellicle known as the periople, and thereby allowing the process of evaporation to act on the water normally contained in the hoof.