The efficacy of counter-irritation has been called in question by men whose attainments should command respect, but they are in a minority, and most practical veterinarians are agreed that the greatest benefit is often secured in a very short time by the prompt application of a mustard plaster, or a smart liniment of turpentine or cantharides, to the sides of the chest. As an alternative to this mode of treatment, heat and moisture to the surface may be applied by means of rugs clipped in hot water and wrung out, or by the use of the hot pack, great care being exercised in changing them to avoid a chill in the intervals. Where practicable, the employment of hot smoothing - irons is to be preferred. Here a hot rug is first placed on the sides of the chest, with a dry one over it, and flat-irons are applied first to one side and then to the other, or to both at the same time, as may be convenient.