This substance was formerly in more general use by veterinarians than is the case at the present day, and many horses have shown symptoms of poisoning through its agency, both by internal administration and through absorption by the skin when injudiciously employed in the form of blisters.

(See Kidney Diseases.)

Entire horses entrusted to ignorant leaders are sometimes made ill by the administration of this drug with the intention of exciting the sexual instinct. Mares refusing service have also been injured by its use.


Purging and bloody urine, arching the back, and nausea; colicky pains, frothing at the mouth, restlessness, and fever. In the case of stallions and of geldings, frequent protrusion of the penis, and with mares, erection of the clitoris and elevation of the tail. Fatal doses may be preceded by delirium, convulsions, or paralysis.


Mucilaginous drinks, as a solution of gum-arabic, or tragacanth, barley-water, white of eggs, milk, and linseed-tea may be given. Poultices over the loins, injections of warm water with belladonna extract, and repeated small doses of opium in the shape of draughts are also beneficial.