Grains in an Ounce and a Pound

1 ounce

437 grains.

16 ounces

7000 grains or 1 lb.

Spoons as Fluid Measure

A tea-spoon holds ...

one fluid dram.

A dessert-spoon holds

two fluid drams.

A table-spoon holds

half an ounce.

A wine bottle holds

1. pint.

Doses According to Age

For a yearling

⅓ that for an aged horse.

For a two-year-old ...

that for an aged horse.

For a three-year-old

2/3 that for an aged horse.

For a four-year-old ...

that for an aged horse.

For a five-year-old ...

Full dose.

Coins as Weights

A threepenny piece

weighs one scruple (20 grains).

A sixpence ...

weighs two scruples (40 grains).

A shilling piece

weighs 80 grains.

3 sovereigns

weigh one ounce.

Three penny pieces and a threepenny piece

weigh one ounce.

The above are approximately correct, but should not be used for active drugs as strychnine or morphine.

Medicines And Their Therapeutical Action

Class of Medicine.

Action.

Examples.

Alteratives.

Improve the general condition of the body without exercising any perceptible local action.

Arsenic, iodine and its salts, linseed oil in small doses, antimony, chloride of sodium.

Anaesthetics.

Destroy sensation.

1. Locally. Cold, cocaine, carbolic acid, ether spray.

2. Generally. Chloroform, ether.

Anaphrodisiacs.

Diminish the sexual appetite.

Bromide and iodide of potassium, camphor, digitalis, purgatives.

Anodynes.

Subdue pain.

1. Locally. Cold, warmth, aconite, belladonna, opium.

2. Generally. Belladonna, chloral, hyoseyamus, opium.

Antacids.

Neutralize excessive acidity in the stomach and bowels.

Potassium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, chalk.

Anthelmintics.

Destroy or remove intestinal worms.

1. Those infesting the rectum. Injections of solution of common salt, infusion of quassia, eucalyptol, catechu, etc.

2. For Nematodes or round worms. Santonin.

Class of Medicine.

Action.

Examples.

Anthelmintics.

Destroy or remove intestinal worms.

3. For tape-worms. Male fern, kousso, areca-nut, turpentine.

Antihydroties.

Diminish secretion of sweat.

Mineral acids, belladonna, hyoscyamus, nux vomica, quinine, strychnia.

Antiperiodics.

Prevent the recurrence of certain diseases whose nature it is to return periodically.

Quinine, cinchonine, arsenic, salicylic acid, etc.

Antipyretics.

Lower the temperature of the body in fever. Also called Febrifuges.

Salicylate of soda, camphor, quinine, alcohol, nitrous ether.

Antiseptics.

Destroy the organisms of decomposition, or so far weaken their vitality as to arrest putrefaction.

Carbolic acid, calcium chloride, chinosol, oil of eucalyptus, thymol, etc.

Antispasmodics.

Prevent or cause muscles when in a state of spasm to become relaxed.

Alcohol, ether, bromide of potassium, camphor.

Aphrodisiacs.

Increase sexual appetite.

Cantharides, strychnine, alcohol.

Astringents.

Diminish the secretion from mucous membranes and excite contraction of the tissues to which they are applied.

Acids, alum, ferric chloride, copper sulphate, chalk, gallic acid, tannic acid.

Carminatives.

Increase the peristaltic movement of the stomach and bowels and drive out superfluous gas.

Aniseed, capsicum, caraway seeds, mustard, pepper, oil of peppermint.

Caustics.

Destroy morbid excrescences on the skin and other free surfaces, and impart a healthy action to fungating sores.

Silver nitrate, mineral acids, the hydrates of potash and soda.

ChoIogogues.

Effect the removal of bile from the body.

Aloes, calomel, podophyl-lin.

Demulcents.

Soothe and guard parts to which they are applied against irritation.

Linseed tea, starch, glycerine, oil, Fuller's-earth, cottonwool.

Diaphoretics.

Increase the secretion of sweat in the form of vapour. They are called sudorifics when perspiration appears in distinct drops.

Warmth, spirit of nitrous ether, solution of acetate of ammonium, tartar emetic, ipecacuanha, camphor.

Disinfectants.

Destroy the virus of contagious diseases.

Carbolic acid, thymol, mercuric chloride, boracic acid, sulphurous acid.

Diuretics.

Cause the removal of water and worn-out material from the body by stimulating the action of the kidneys.

Potassium nitrate, potassium chlorate, sodium chloride, alcohol, turpentine, and cantharides.

Ecbolics.

By exiting the action of the uterus cause expulsion of its contents.

Ergot, savin.

Emmenagogues.

Stimulate the return of restrain.

Iron, strychnine, ergot, cantharides, savin, quinine.

Class of Medicine.

Action.

Examples.

Emollients.

Give suppleness and softness to the parts to which they are applied.

Poultices, oil, glycerine, paraffin, lard, vaseline.

Expectorants.

Cause the free discharge of secretions from the air-passages.

Iodide of potassium, tar-tarized antimony, ipecacuanha, ammonium chloride, squill.

Febrifuges.

See Antipyretics.

Hypnotics or Soporifics.

Induce sleep.

Opium, morphia, chloral hydrate, bromide of potassium.

Irritants and Counter-irritants.

Irritants increase the circulation in a part and restore it to a normal condition. When applied to one part of the body with the object of arresting disease in another part they are called counter-irritants.

Liniments of ammonia, turpentine, croton, iodine, bin-iodide of mercury, cantharides.

Laxatives.

Soften the faeces and cause a more frequent evacuation of the bowels.

Bran mashes, linseed and linseed cake, green food, small repeated doses of castor oil, linseed oil.

Mydriatics.

Cause the pupil to dilate.

Atropine, belladonna.

Myotics.

Cause the pupil to contract.

Calabar bean, eserine, jaborandi, morphine, opium.

Purgatives.

Increase the action of the bowels, promote secretion of intestinal fluid and cause intestinal evacuation.

Aloes, croton oil, linseed oil, castor oil, sodium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, calomel.

Rubefacients.

Produce slight congestion and redness of the part to which they are applied.

Soap liniment, etc.

Sedatives.

Diminish the sensibility of a part, or of the entire body.

Local sedatives. Aconite, belladonna, carbolic acid, chloral, opium, and morphia.

General sedatives. Hydrocyanic acid, aconite, belladonna, chloral, opium, and morphia.

Sialogogues.

Stimulate the salivary glands and increase the secretion of saliva.

Load. Mustard, ginger, mineral acids.

General. Compounds of iodine and mercury.

Soporifics.

See Hypnotics.

Styptics.

Stop the flow of blood from divided vessels.

Mineral acids, alum, ferric chlorides, tannin, actual cautery.

Tonics.

Strengthen the body as a whole, or parts composing it.

Salts of iron, strychnia, mineral acids, quinine, nux vomica, etc.

Vermicides and Vermifuges.

See Anthelmintics.

Prescriptions Horse Balls

ALTERATIVE

Nitrate of Potash

1 dram

Sublimed Sulphur

1 dram

Powdered Aloes ...

1 dram

Linseed Flour

3 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

or

Powdered Fenugreek

1 dram

Chloride of Sodium

1 dram

Black Sulphur

2 drams

Linseed Flour

3 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

ASTRINGENT

Powdered Cassia Bark ...

1 dram

Powdered Opium

dram

Powdered Catechu

1 dram

Linseed Flour

3 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

or

Powdered Catechu

1 dram

Powdered Cinchona Bark

1 dram

Prepared Chalk ...

2 drams

Powdered Aniseeds

1 dram

Linseed Flour

2 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

BROKEN WIND

Calomel

20 grains

Powdered Digitalis Leaves

20 grains

Powdered Opium

20 grains

Powdered Camphor

20 grains

Linseed Flour

3 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

To be given once or twice a week.

CORDIAL

Powdered Aniseeds

1 dram

Powdered Gentian Root ...

1 dram

Powdered Pimento

1 dram

Linseed Flour

3 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

or

Powdered Ginger

1 dram

Powdered Gentian

1 dram

Powdered Fenugreek

I dram

Powdered Caraway Seeds

1 dram

Linseed Flour

2 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

COUGH

Powdered Squill ...

1 dram

Powdered Liquorice

1 dram

Powdered Ipecacuanha ...

1 dram

Powdered Aniseeds

1 dram

Linseed Flour

2 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

or

Powdered Gum Ammoniacnm ...

1 dram

Powdered Belladonna Leaves

1 dram

Powdered Carraway Seeds

1 dram

Powdered Camphor

1 dram

Linseed Flour

2 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

or

Nitrate of Potash

2 drams

Powdered Digitalis Leaves

10 grains

Linseed Flour

3 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

DIURETIC

Nitrate of Potash

1 dram

Powdered Resin ...

2 drams

Oil of Juniper

30 drops

Linseed Flour

3 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

or

Venice Turpentine

oz.

Aloes

i dram

Linseed Flour, sufficient to make a Ball.

FEVER

Powdered Camphor

1 dram

Powdered Epsom Salts ...

1 dram

Nitrate of Potash

2 drams

Powdered Liquorice Root

1 dram

Linseed Flour

2 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

or

Emetic Tartar

i dram

Bicarbonate of Potash

1 dram

Powdered Camphor

1 dram

Linseed Flour

3 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

or

Quinine

15 grains

Powdered Gentian

1 dram

Powdered Caraway Seeds

1 dram

Linseed Flour

3 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

PHYSIC

Barbados Aloes ...

5 drams

Ground Ginger

1 dram

Linseed Flour

1 dram

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

TONIC

Powdered Sulphate of Iron

2 drams

Powdered Gentian

1 dram

Powdered Aniseeds

1 dram

Linseed Flour

2 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

or

Powdered Nux Vomica ...

1 dram

Powdered Ginger

1 dram

Powdered Caraway Seeds

1 dram

Linseed Flour

2 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

WORM

Barbados Aloes ...

1 dram

Powdered Sulphate of Iron

2 drams

Santonine ...

12 grains

Linseed Flour

3 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

or

Tartarated Antimony

1 dram

Powdered Gentian

2 drams

Powdered Sulphate of Iron

1 dram

Linseed Flour

3 drams

Soft Soap, sufficient to make a Ball.

Worm balls should be given in the morning on an empty stomach.

Powders

ALTERATIVE

Powdered Gentian

1 dram

Black Antimony ...

1 dram

Nitrate of Potash

2 drams

Powdered Aniseeds

1 dram

Mix: for a dose.

or

Chloride of Sodium

1 dram

Black Sulphur

1 dram

Powdered Epsom Salts ...

2 drams

Powdered Aniseeds

1 dram

Mix: for a dose.

ASTRINGENT

Prepared Chalk.........

3 drams

Powdered Cassia Bark ...

1 dram

Powdered Catechu

1 dram

Powdered Calumba Root

1 dram

Mix: for a dose.

or

Powdered Opium ...

1/2 dram

Powdered Charcoal

2 drams

Tannic Acid

10 grains

Powdered Gentian

1 dram

Mix: for a dose.

or

Powdered Sulphate of Copper ...

1 dram

Powdered Oak Bark

2 drams

Powdered Cinnamon Bark

1 dram

Powdered Aniseeds

1 dram

Mix: for a dose.

CONDITION

Nitrate of Potash

1 dram

Chloride of Sodium

1 dram

Black Sulphur

1 dram

Powdered Caraway Seeds

1 dram

Mix: for a dose.

or

Powdered Fenugreek

1 dram

Powdered Resin ...

2 drams

Nitrate of Potash

1 dram

Flowers of Sulphur

1 dram

Mix: for a dose.

or

Powdered Liquorice Root

2 drams

Black Antimony ...

1 dram

Powdered Caraway Seeds

1 dram

Quinine

15 grains

Mix: for a dose.

CORDIAL

Powdered Aniseeds

1 dram

Powdered Coriander Seeds

1 dram

Powdered Pimento

1 dram

Powdered Gentian

1 dram

Mix: for a dose.

or

Powdered Liquorice Root

1 dram

Powdered Gentian

1 dram

Powdered Ginger

1 dram

Powdered Cinnamon Bark

dram

Mix: for a dose.

COUGH

Powdered Camphor

1 dram

Powdered Squill ...

1 dram

Powdered Aniseeds

1 dram

Powdered Belladonna Leaves

\ dram

Mix: for a dose.

or

Powdered Fenugreek

1 dram

Powdered Gum Ammoniacum ...

1 dram

Powdered Squill ...

1 dram

Powdered Liquorice Root

1 dram

Mix: for a dose.

DIURETIC

Nitrate of Potash

2 drams

Powdered Resin ...

1 dram

Powdered Juniper Berries

1 dram

Mix: for a dose.

FEVER

Powdered Camphor

dram

Nitrate of Potash...

1 dram

Tartarated Antimony

dram

Powdered Liquorice Root

1 dram

Mix: for a dose.

or

Powdered Epsom Salts ...

1 ounce

Powdered Belladonna Leaves

1 dram

Nitrate of Potash

1 dram

Powdered Aniseeds

1 dram

Mix: for a dose.

TONIC

Quinine

10 grains

Ground Ginger ...

30 grains

Powdered Gentian

2 drams

Mix: for a dose.

or

Powdered Sulphate of Iron

1 dram

Powdered Nux Vomica ...

dram

Powdered Aniseeds

1 dram

Powdered Liquorice Root

1 dram

Mix: for a dose.

WORM

Santonine ...

15 grains

Powdered Sulphate of Iron

2 drams

Powdered Aniseeds

1 dram

Mix: for a dose.

or

Emetic Tartar

1 dram

Powdered Calumba Root

1 dram

Powdered Sulphate of Iron

1 dram

Powdered Coriander Seeds

dram

Mix: for a dose.

Draughts

ASTRINGENT

Tincture of Catechu

ounce

Tincture of Opium

1 ounce

Powdered Cinnamon Bark

1 dram

Prepared Chalk ...

2 drams

Powdered White Sugar ...

2 drams

Mix as a draught in a pint of warm water.

COLIC

Laudanum

1 ounce

Compound Tincture of Cardamoms

ounce

Tincture of Aconite

15 drops

Mix. To be given in a pint of cold water.

or

Spirit of Turpentine

1 ounce

Oil of Peppermint

15 drops

Tincture of Ginger

1 ounce

Glycerine...

ounce

Mix. To be given in a pint of warm linseed gruel.

CORDIAL

Compound Tincture of Cardamoms

ounce

Compound Tincture of Gentian ...

1 ounce

Tincture of Calumba

ounce

Tincture of Ginger

ounce

Mix. To be given in a pint of warm ale.

DIURETIC

Spirit of Turpentine

1/2 ounce

Sweet Spirit of Nitre

1 ounce

Oil of Juniper

10 drops

Mix. To Be given in a pint of linseed tea.

FEVER

Spirit of Nitrous Ether ...

1 ounce

Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia

1 ounce

Mix. To be given in a pint of cold water.

PURGATIVE

Linseed Oil

1 pint

or

Barbados Aloes ...

5 drams

Tincture of Ginger

\ ounce

Oil of Peppermint

10 drops

Dissolve the aloes in a pint of warm water and add the other ingredients when cool.

TONIC

Compound Tincture of Gentian ...

1 ounce

Tincture of Calumba

1 ounce

Tincture of Cinchona

1/2 ounce

Mix. To be given in a pint of cold water.

or

Compound Tincture of Cardamoms

1 ounce

Nitric Acid

1 dram

Tincture of Nux Vomica

1/2 ounce

Mix. To be given in a pint of cold water.