Ia. Side view of the hoof and the lower part of the limb (left fore-foot):

1. Lower part of shin-bone.

2. Fetlock-joint.

3. Long pastern.

4. Coronet-joint.

5. 5. Coronet.

6. Heel.

7. Hoof.

8. Quarter.

9. Heel of crust.

10. Toe.

Ib. Lower surface of the hoof:

11-14. Ground surface of crust.

15, 15. Inflection of the crust or wall.

16, 16. Lacunae of frog.

17,17. White line at junction of sole and crust or wall.

18, 18. Bars.

19. Sole.

20, 20. Outer and inner angles of the sole.

21. Frog.

22. Frog point or apex.

23, 23. Outer and inner bulbs of frog.

24. Cleft of frog.

25, 25. Heels.

IIa. Section of the hoof, seen from the inner side:

1. Wall, cut through at the toe-line.

2. Laminae of the wall.

3. Same, in section.

4. 4. Coronary border of hoof.

5. Coronary groove.

6. Plantar border of wall or crust.

7. Horny sole, in section.

8. Part of the lower surface of the sole.

9. Inner surface of the frog.

10. Same, in section.

IIb. Horny case, seen from above:

11, 11. Outer wall.

12, 12. Coronary border.

13, 13. Coronary groove.

14, 14. Inner aspect of horny sole.

15, 15. Laminae of the bars.

16, Frog.

17. Heels.

IIIa. Exterior side view of the hoof-skin:

1,1. Hoof.

2 Fleshy or sensitive laminae.

3. Coronary cushion.

4, 4. Skin with the hair removed.

IIIb. The hoof-skin seen from below:

5, 5. Fleshy or sensitive sole. 6-7. Sensitive laminae of the bars.

8, 8. Fleshy or sensitive frog.

9. Cleft of 'the frog.

10-11. Inner and outer heels of the fleshy frog.

IVa. Blood-vessels and nerves of the hoof and of the lowest part of the limb (right fore-foot, side view):

1, 1. Digital artery going to the foot.

2, Perpendicular artery.

3, Coronary artery.

4. Preplantar artery.

5, 5, 5. Inferior brandies of the preplantar artery.

6, 6, 6. Artery of the toe.

7, 7. Toe vein.

8, 8. Net-work of veins in and beneath the sensitive lamina?.

9, 9, 9. Net-work of veins in the deep coronet.

10, 10. Plantar nerve.

11, Anterior digital nerve.

12, 12. Posterior digital nerve.

13, 13. Branches to the skin.

14. Extensor tendon of the foot bone and pastern.

15. Outer branch of suspensory ligament.

IVb. Blood-vessels of the hoof, seen from below:

16, 16. Arteries of the frog.

17, 17. Arteries of the sole.

18, 18. Net-work of veins in the heels.

19, 19. Net-work of veins in the sensitive sole.

20, 20, 20. Circumflex or toe vein.

Va. Side view of the bones of the hoof and of the lower part of the limb:

1. Lower end of the shin or canon bone.

2. Sesamoid bone.

3. Upper pastern bone or first phalanx.

4. Lower pastern bone or second phalanx.

5. Pedal bone or third phalanx.

6. Fetlock-joint.

7. Pastern-joint.

8. Pedal or foot joint.

9. Condyle of canon bone.

10. Upper articular margin of long pastern bone.

11. Lower articular margin of same.

12. Upper articular margin of lower pastern bone.

13. Lower articular margin of same.

14. Articulating surface of pedal bone.

15. Outer surface of pedal bone.

16. Coronal or pyramidal process of the pedal bone.

17. Basilar process of the pedal bone.

18. Plantar fissure of pedal bone.

19,19,19 Foraminae or openings for the passage of blood-vessels. 20, 20. Lower border of the pedal bone.

Vb. Pedal bone, seen from below:

21, Under surface of pedal bone.

22, 22. Alae or wings of pedal bone.

23, 23, 23. Margin for attachment of flexor pedis tendon.

24, Eminence for attachment of inferior navicular ligament.

25, 25. Foraminae or openings for entry of plantar vessels.

26, 26. Margin of the sole.

VIa. Central longitudinal section of the lower part of the limb:

1. Skin.

2. Ergot.

3. Horny wall.

4. Horny sole.

5. Horny frog.

6. Extensor pedis tendon.

7. Flexor pedis perforans.

8. Superior and inferior navicular ligaments.

9. Flexor pedis perforatus.

10. Sesamoid bone.

11. Lower end of canon bone.

12. Upper pastern bone.

13. Lower or small pastern bone.

14. Pedal bone.

15. Navicular bone.

16. Fetlock-joint.

17. Pastern-joint.

18. Pedal or foot joint.

19. Capsular ligament of pedal joint.

20. Sensitive laminae.

21. 21. Sensitive sole.

22. Sensitive frog.

23. Plantar cushion or frog pad.

VIb. Under surface of the pedal bone:

24. Under surface of pedal bone.

25-27. Expansion and attachment of the flexor pedis tendon to pedal or foot bone. 28, 28. Lateral cartilages.

VIla. Side view of the foot, with the hoof shod:

1. Front of the hoof.

2. Outer quarter.

3. Outer heel.

4. Toe of the shoe.

5. Clip of the shoe.

6. Outer quarter of shoe.

7. Outer heel.

8. Foot surface of shoe.

9. Ground surface of shoe.

10. Clinch of the outer first toe-nail.

11. Clinch of the outer second toe-nail.

12. Clinch of the outer first chief nail.

Vllb. A shod hoof, seen from below:

13 Toe of shoe.

14-15. Inner and outer quarters of shoe.

16-17. Inner and outer heels of shoe.

18, 18. Fullering.

19, 19. First toe-nail heads.

20, 20. Second toe-nail heads.

21, 21. First chief nail heads.

22, A sharp or pointed calk screwed into the calk-hole.

23, Calk-hole with the last turn of the screw.

Cross section of a shoe, nails, calks:

24. Cross section of a shoe.

25. Bearing surface.

26. Sloping surface.

27. Fullering.

28. 28. Ground surface.

29. Nail-hole.

30. English shoe-nail, broad surface.

31. The point.

32. The body or shaft.

33. The head.

34. English shoe-nail seen edgewise.

35. American shoe-nail, broad surface.

36. American shoe-nail seen edgewise.

37. Sharp or pointed screw-calk, side View.

38. The thread.

39. The head.

40. Blunt screw-calk, side view.

41. The thread.

42. The head.

43. Blunt screw-calk, seen from above and from the side.

44. The head.

45. The thread.

46. The groove.

47. Angular calk.

48. H-calk.

49. Wedge-shaped calk.

Explanations For The Model The Hoof Of The Horse 60078