With the same methods of restraint and preliminary preparation, severance of the glands may be effected by ligature. In this method the posterior or nonvascular portion of the cord is divided by the knife as in the preceding operation, and the artery is tightly bound round by some suitable material, as carbolized gut, waxed silk, or fishing cord. The first of these presents an advantage in that it is capable of being liquefied and absorbed during the healing of the wound, while the others require to be removed from outside when strangulation of the vessel has been. effected; but none of them is wholly satisfactory. The general opinion in this country among castrators of experience is to the effect that this, the most simple and cleanly method, is the least successful of any.