1. Hop (Humulm Lupulus): a. Male flower.

b. Female flower.

c. Strobile.

d. Female flower enlarged.

e. Male flower enlarged.

f. Fruit enlarged.

j. Section of fruit enlarged.

2. Cardamom (Elettaria Cardamomum): a. Raceme.

b. Cardamom.

c. Section of fruit and seeds enlarged.

d. Grain of Paradise (Amomum Melegueta) enlarged.

e. Section of Grain of Paradise. f. Section of seed, natural size.

3. Quassia (Picreena excelsa): a. Leaves and flowers reduced.

b. Male flower enlarged.

C. Hermaphrodite flower enlarged. d. Cross-grained slice of wood (the "Quassia" of trade).

4. Cascarilla (Croton Elmteria): a. Branchlet.

b. Female flower enlarged.

c. Male flower enlarged.

d. Bark.

e. Cross section of bark enlarged.

5. Calumba (Jateorhiza Calumba) a. Leaves and flowers reduced.

b. Male flower enlarged.

c. Femr.le flower enlarged.

d. Rhizome and roots reduced e. Slice of root.

6. Gentian (Gentiana lutea): a. Upper part of flower spike.

b. Fruit.

c. Part of rhizome. d. Part of root.



Cardamoms have a mildly tonic and stimulating effect upon the stomach, but are not much employed in equine medicines, as they are not only expensive but inferior to gentian, calumba, and quassia as tonics, and might with equal propriety be considered among those drugs called carminatives.