Each horse should be provided in the stable with at least two cubic feet of air-space for each pound of live weight. Cattle require about one-half as much air-space per unit of live weight. This difference arises in part from the fact that both the solid and the liquid voidings of horses begin to ferment much quicker than do those of cattle. Horse manure is hot and dry; cow manure, cold and wet. Horses are put to exhaustive work and require a full supply of oxygen in the stables, that the depleted energy may be quickly replenished.

High ceilings save floor space and are more satisfactory than low ones, as they give opportunity for lighting and ventilating. The horses' heads should be turned away from the light, and hence from the windows. Side lights are not so objectionable as are those placed in front of the horse. All windows should be arranged for lowering the top sash, as well as for raising the bottom one. Windows should be numerous and tall, if the ceiling permits; if it does not, sash hung near the middle may be made to serve for both light and ventilation. Fig. 87. The windows may be furnished with screens; but, if they are curtained and the light in the stable be reduced in the middle of the day, the flies will be largely excluded.

It is seldom that too many windows are placed in the stable. All the light that is practicable to introduce will be needed morning and evening in cloudy weather and during the short days of winter. It is inexpensive to exclude some of the light in midsummer. Many windows assist in securing ventilation. True, windows increase the temperature in the daytime and serve to radiate heat at night. The worst possible position for a window in a stable is immediately in front of and on a level with or above that of the horse's head. If such windows be even partially opened, dangerous drafts of air strike the horses on their most vulnerable points - heads and eyes. I have known two high - priced spans of coachers to be seriously injured by drafts from such windows. When the stables were rearranged and the horses placed with their heads away from the outside wall and light, the trouble ceased. Most sizable stables are arranged with a wide walk-way between two rows of horses, the two feed alleys being placed on the outside. This arrangement is objectionable for several reasons. First, it places the horses' heads toward the light; then it masses all the voidings of the animals in the center of the building where good ventilation along the floor cannot be easily secured. When the arrangement is as shown, in Fig. 88, the floors may be ventilated from an outside opening, as previously described. The outside walls furnish room for the harness, and at the point where they will dry more quickly than in any other part of the stable, unless a separate well-ventilated harness-room be provided. Where but few horses are kept, the big barn floor is frequently used for the feed-hall. This results in placing the horses with their heads away from the light. Where the stables are thus arranged, they are likely to be over-ventilated. To overcome this, flap doors are hung at the front of the mangers, which may be closed at night in cold weather. The panes in barn and stable windows should be small; eight by ten is a suitable size. Small window-panes are less likely to be broken than large ones, since the numerous bars of the sash serve as fenders. Then, too, small panes are more cheaply replaced than large ones. Where there are several colts on the farm, a cheap shelter should be constructed into which the colts may retire from the hot sun when the flies become troublesome. There should be doors in each end which may be left open to secure a draft of air. The door opening may be covered with large pieces of coarse material. The animals soon learn to pass into the structure and, in doing so, brush off the flies. Inside, it is dark, as no windows are provided, and the colts are comfortable and are not stamping the grass. In the cool of the evening, they go out to graze. Sometimes the structure is made tall enough to store hay in the loft, in which case the colts are wintered in the building, being fed but once a day. Mr. A. C. Chase, of Syracuse, N. Y., has found this method of rearing Morgan colts most satisfactory.

A swing window for a stable.

Fig. 87. A swing window for a stable.