Water is as essential to horses as food, and unless for special reasons, they should never be stinted in it. Horses prefer soft to hard water, and clean to dirty water; whether hard or soft, it should always be clean, if possible. The quantity consumed will depend upon circumstances. Some horses drink more than others; in hot weather more is required than in cold; after severe exertion, a greater quantity is taken than when the horse is allowed to remain quiet; when feverish, horses drink more than in health; when deprived of water for a long time, more is swallowed than would have been taken had the horse been allowed to help himself voluntarily. Horses, as a rule, drink less water when they can have easy access to it, or when it is always before them, than when they only receive it at certain, perhaps long, intervals. It is, therefore, the best plan to allow them to have water frequently, even when performing fast work. If properly watered, a horse will not drink any more than is necessary for him; so that, as to quantity, he is the best judge. There are circumstances when, perhaps, it may be necessary to restrict an unlimited supply of cold water, as when he is exhausted from fatigue, after prolonged abstinence, or when very cold, or even excessively hot. In such small quantity only should be allowed until the body is in a fit state to receive more; or the water may be given tepid, or, which is better, some oatmeal may be mixed with it, or a bucket of oatmeal gruel given instead; indeed, in all such circumstances, the latter is the safest procedure. It is a wise plan always to give water before feeding, not after; as if given after eating it is likely to cause colic, by carrying with it some of the undigested food from the stomach into the intestines. Fresh water should always be given. Water troughs ought to be kept scrupulously clean, and the water in them often changed. Icy cold water is not very safe, and if it must be given, it should be allowed only in small quantity at a time, or warm water added to it.