Lower jaw longest, obliquely ascending.

C. Maraenula, Jard. in Edinb. Journ. of Nat. and Geog. Sci. vol. iii. p. 4. pl. 1. Salmo Maraenula, Bloch, Ichth. pl. 28. f. 3.? Gmel. Linn. torn. i. partiii. p. 1381.? S. albula, Stew. El. of Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 373. La Vemme, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 307.?


From four to ten inches. Jard.


{Form). Differs essentially from the C. Lavaretus in having the lower jaw longest, and ascending at an angle of forty-five degrees to meet the upper, which receives it as in a groove: general outline similar: greatest depth exactly one-fourth of the entire length, caudal excluded: head small; "the crown heart-shaped, and so transparent that the form of the skull and Drain may be seen through the integuments *:" maxillaries and lower jaw without teeth: tongue, which is small and triangular, and placed far back, rough to the touch, with a few, almost invisible, velvet-like teeth: eyes large and brilliant; their diameter contained three times and a half in the length of the head; the intervening space scarcely equal to their diameter: gill-opening very large: lateral line straight: " scales of considerable size, oval, and nearly smooth on the outer surface:" dorsal commencing at the middle of the entire length; .very much elevated and pointed anteriorly, its greatest height being nearly twice its length; first ray very short; fourth longest; fifth and succeeding rays rapidly decreasing; the last not half the length of the fourth; first three simple, the rest branched: space between the dorsal and adipose more than double that between the adipose and caudal: anal commencing a little beyond the tip of the reclined dorsal, and terminating in a line with the adipose; first ray very minute; fourth and fifth longest; first four simple, the rest branched: caudal very much forked: pectorals attached low down: ventrals opposed to the anterior half of the dorsal; the axillary scale scarcely more than one-fourth of their length:

B. 9; D. 12; A. 14; C. 19, etc.; P. 15; V. 11.

"Number of vertebrae fifty to fifty-two." {Colours). "Upper parts of a delicate greenish brown, shading gradually into a clear silver lustre: irides and cheeks silvery: dorsal fin greenish brown; the lower fins all bluish white." Jard.

First distinguished as a British species by Sir W. Jardine. By previous authors in this country it appears to have been confounded with the C. Lavaretus. The only locality known for it " is the lochs in the neighbourhood of Lochmaben, in Dumfries-shire;" into which (according to tradition) it was introduced by Mary Queen of Scots. " General habits resembling those of the Gwiniad. Swims in large shoals, retiring to the depths of the lakes in warm and clear weather. Spawns about the commencement of November".

(3). SCOPELUS, Cuv.

(21). S Humboldti, Cuv

Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 315. S. borealis, Nilss. Prod. Ichth. Scand. p. 20. Sheppy Argentine, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 327. pl. 65. no. 156. Id. (Edit. 1812). vol. iii. p. 432. pl. 76.

Cuvier considers the Sheppy Argentine of Pennant, an obscure species of which little is known, to be the same as the Serpes Humboldti of Risso, this last being the type of his genus Scopelus. The following is Pennant's description of his fish, which he obtained from the sea near Downing, in 1769. " Length two inches and one-fourth. Eyes large; irides silvery: lower jaw sloped much: teeth small: body compressed, and of an equal depth almost to the anal fin: tail forked. Back of a dusky green: the sides and covers of the gills as if plated with silver. Lateral line in the middle and quite straight. On each side of the belly a row of circular punctures: above them another, ceasing near the vent".

Whether the Argentine of Lowt be the same as Pennant's fish, can scarcely, from his imperfect description, be determined.

* Sir W. Jardine.

† Faun. Oread, p. 225.