Upper plumage olivaceous green, with dusky spots: neck, breast, and sides, spotted: tarsi moderate.
A. pratensis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 269. Meadow Pipit, Selb. Illust. vol. i. p. 260. pl. 49. f. 4. Titlark, Mont. Orn. Diet. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. I. p. 220.
Entire length five inches nine lines: length of the bill (from the forehead) five lines and a half, (from the gape) eight lines; of the tarsus ten lines and a half; of the hind toe, claw included, ten lines and a half; of the tail two inches four lines and a half; from the carpus to the end of the wing three inches: breadth, wings extended, nine inches ten lines.
(Summer plumage). Upper parts olivaceous green tinged with ash-gray; feathers on the head, back, and scapulars, spotted with dusky: under parts yellowish white; throat, in the male, during the breeding season only, with a deep reddish tinge; sides of the neck, breast, and upper part of the abdomen, marked with blackish brown spots; flanks with long dusky streaks: tail dusky; outer feather edged externally, and broadly tipped, with white; the next with a small white spot at the extremity: bill slender, dusky; base of the under mandible yellowish: irides hazel: legs yellowish brown: hind claw not so long as in the last species, slightly curved. (Winter plumage). Upper parts of a brighter and more decided olive-green, with the dusky spots not occupying1, so large a portion of the feather: under parts ferruginous yellow, and not so much spotted. (Egg). Reddish white ground, mottled all over with darker reddish brown: long. diam. nine lines; trans, diam. seven lines.
Very abundant on moors, barren heaths, and extensive fenny districts. Stays the whole year. Sings in its descent, after rising to a considerable height in the air, always returning to the ground, or to some low bush, with motionless wings and expanded tail. Nest on the ground; composed of dry grass, bents, and stalks of plants, patched on the outside with a small quantity of green moss, and lined with fine grasses and long horse-hair. Eggs five or six, hatched towards the end of May. Obs. The Pipit Lark of Montagu is this species in its winter plumage, after the autumnal moult.
** Hind claw about equal to the toe in lengthy or shorter; much curved.