Body deep: lower jaw longest: anal with fourteen rays: sides and abdomen gilded; caudal, ventrals, and anal, bright vermilion.
C. Erythrophthalmus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 530. Bloch, Ichth. pi. 1. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. ii. pl. 40. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 108. Leuciscus Erythroph. Flem. Brit. An. p. 188. Rudd or Finscale, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 252. tab. Q. 3. f. 1. Rud, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 363. pl. 72. Id. (Edit. 1812). vol. iii. p. 479. pl. 83. Bowd. Brit. fr. wat. Fish. Draw. no. 21. Red-Eye, Yarr. Brit. Fish. vol. t. p. 361. Le Rotengle, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. n. p. 276.
From twelve to fourteen inches.
Descrtpt. (Form). General appearance resembling that of the Roach, but the body deeper and thicker; the back more arched, and forming a slightly salient angle at the commencement of the dorsal fin; ventral line very convex anteriorly, but behind, along the base of the anal, nearly straight; tail suddenly contracting before the caudal: head small: snout short; lower jaw projecting beyond the upper: lateral line bending downwards; its course, beneath the commencement of the dorsal, at about two-thirds of the depth: scales large; number in the lateral line forty-one; above it seven and a half; beneath three and a half: dorsal fin entirely behind the middle, as well as the ventrals; first ray only half the length of the second; all the rays except the first two branched: anal commencing a little beyond the termination of the dorsal: caudal deeply forked: pectorals about the length of the head: ventrals a little shorter, situate exactly half-way between the pectorals and the vent:
D. 11; A. 14; C. 19, etc.; P. 14; V. 9.
(Colours). Back olivaceous; sides and belly golden-orange, the metallic lustre very brilliant in the living fish, but fading soon after death: irides orange: dorsal and pectorals dusky, tinged with red; ventrals, anal, and caudal, bright vermilion, the two former pale at the base.
Found in rivers and other deep waters, not uncommonly. Recorded by Willughby as inhabiting the lakes of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, and the river Cherwell in Oxfordshire. Is also met with in the Thames, Stour, and Cam; very abundantly in some parts of the river last mentioned, where it is called a Shallow. Feeds on worms, mollusca, and vegetable substances. Spawns in April or May. Weight from one to one and a half, rarely two pounds.