In addition to the three regular orders of architecture, it was customary among the Greeks and other nations to employ representations of the human form, instead of columns, to support entablatures; these were called Persians and Caryatides.

40. - Persians: are statues of men, and are so called in commemoration of a victory gained over the Persians by Pausanias. The Persian prisoners were brought to Athens and condemned to abject slavery; and in order to represent them in the lowest state of servitude and degradation, the statues were loaded with the heaviest entablature, the Doric.

39 Persians And Caryatides 16

Fig. 6.

Fig. 7.   Grecian Corinthian.

Fig. 7. - Grecian Corinthian.

41. - Caryatides: are statues of women dressed in long robes after the Asiatic manner. Their origin is as follows: In a war between the Greeks and the Caryans, the latter were totally vanquished, their male population extinguished, and their females carried to Athens. To perpetuate the memory of this event, statues of females, having the form and dress of the Caryans, were erected, and crowned with the Ionic or Corinthian entablature. The caryatides were generally formed of about the human size, but the persians much larger, in order to produce the greater awe and astonishment in the beholder. The entablatures were proportioned to a statue in like manner as to a column of the same height.

These semblances of slavery have been in frequent use among moderns as well as ancients; and, as a relief from the stateliness and formality of the regular orders, are capable of forming a thousand varieties; yet in a land of liberty such marks of human degradation ought not to be perpetuated.